Open Access

Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Jie Zhou
    • Ruijie Ma
    • Ying Jin
    • Junfan Fang
    • Junying Du
    • Xiaomei Shao
    • Yi Liang
    • Jianqiao Fang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: July 15, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10437
  • Article Number: 1004
  • Copyright: © Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Opioids are considered the most effective analgesics for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. However, prolonged opioid use can induce a certain level of tolerance to its analgesic effects, leading to a reduction in its effectiveness, addiction and abuse. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying opioid tolerance may provide insights into this phenomenon and aid in the development of novel methods to combat the side effects of opioid tolerance. The present review focused on two major contributors to tolerance, opioid receptors and inflammatory mediators. The molecular mechanisms involved in the desensitization of the opioid receptors were briefly described, including their phosphorylation, internalisation and recycling. Subsequently, the effects of Toll like receptor 4/NOD‑like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3‑mediated proinflammatory responses in opioid tolerance were discussed, aiming in supporting the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

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September-2021
Volume 22 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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Copy and paste a formatted citation
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Spandidos Publications style
Zhou J, Ma R, Jin Y, Fang J, Du J, Shao X, Liang Y and Fang J: Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review). Exp Ther Med 22: 1004, 2021
APA
Zhou, J., Ma, R., Jin, Y., Fang, J., Du, J., Shao, X. ... Fang, J. (2021). Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 22, 1004. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10437
MLA
Zhou, J., Ma, R., Jin, Y., Fang, J., Du, J., Shao, X., Liang, Y., Fang, J."Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 22.3 (2021): 1004.
Chicago
Zhou, J., Ma, R., Jin, Y., Fang, J., Du, J., Shao, X., Liang, Y., Fang, J."Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 22, no. 3 (2021): 1004. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10437