A systematic review of euthyroid Graves' disease (Review)
- Mioara-Laura Macovei
- Űnal Azis
- Alina Gabriela Gheorghe
- Marian Burcea
Affiliations: Department of Ophthalmology, ‘Carol Davila’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
- Published online on: September 22, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10781
Copyright: © Macovei
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Euthyroid Graves' Disease (EGD) is a challenging pathology, due to its atypical clinical manifestations and the absence of abnormal thyroid function. Typically, thyroid ophthalmopathy is associated with elevated thyroid hormone levels and with the presence of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) but a low percentage of patients remain euthyroid without developing hyperthyroidism during long‑term follow‑up periods. Although it is considered a different pathology, it shares a lot of similarities with Graves' disease, rendering the diagnosis more difficult. It is also important to note that ophthalmopathy may be the first clinical manifestation of Graves' disease and that thyroid function examinations do not present abnormalities over a long period. Treatment choices for euthyroid disease do not differ from those described in Graves' ophthalmopathy. However, it is considered that since euthyroid patients develop milder ophthalmic symptoms and their clinical activity score is lower, they tend to have better responses to treatment. Moreover, atypical sight‑threatening cases such as exposure keratopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy with variable responses to therapy also exist. Disease management consists of a favorable collaboration between ophthalmologists and endocrinologists because patients with EGD can develop thyroid abnormalities over time. In conclusion, the diagnosis of EGD is difficult, clinical manifestations and evolution are variables depending on several factors, including the heterogeneity of TRAb. This review aimed to identify the characteristics of this disease by reviewing the clinical studies and case reports published in previous years.