Affiliations: Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, 81100 Caserta, Italy, School of Biomedical Convergence Engineering, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam‑do 50612, Republic of Korea
Published online on:October 5, 2021https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10843
At the end of 2019, a new disease recognized such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), was reported in Wuhan, China. This disease was caused by an unknown SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2); a virus is characterized by high infectivity among humans. In some cases, this disease can be asymptomatic, while in other cases can induce flu‑like symptoms or acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia and death. For this reason, the World Health Organization and Public Health Emergency of International Concern declared a pandemic status in January 2020. Currently, numerous countries have been involved in the development of effective vaccines to protect humans against SARS‑CoV‑2 infection. The present review will discuss the four vaccines, AZD1222 (AstraZeneca or Vaxzevria), Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S), Moderna/mRNA‑1273 and BioNTech/Fosun/Pfizer BNT162b1, that are currently in use worldwide to understand their efficacy, but also evaluate the difficulties and challenges of vaccine development. Although several questions should be addressed regarding these vaccines, the current review will examine the viral elements used in the coronavirus‑19 vaccine that can play a crucial role in inducing a strong immune response, as well as the different adverse effects that they can cause to individuals.
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