Open Access

Understanding the mechanisms of gallbladder lesions: A systematic review

  • Authors:
    • Andrei Bojan
    • Liliana Georgeta Foia
    • Maria Cristina Vladeanu
    • Iris Bararu Bojan
    • Carmen Plesoianu
    • Alexandru Plesoianu
    • Catalin Pricop
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: July 29, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11541
  • Article Number: 604
  • Copyright: © Bojan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

The gallbladder undergoes different types of pathologies, ranging from inflammatory to preneoplasia and finally to malignant lesions. Gallbladder carcinoma can be highly invasive, and it is known that chronic inflammation of the gallbladder can lead to preneoplastic abnormalities and subsequently malignant phenotypes. Gallbladder neoplasia has a low incidence but is associated with a very poor prognosis. An early diagnosis is therefore extremely important in order to improve the prognosis of patients. Immunohistochemical markers of the mucin family can distinguish between different types of gallbladder lesions. Mucins are glycoproteins that can be attached to threonine residues that are O‑glycosylated (due to the hydroxyl group of this amino acid). Mucins are divided into two types: those that bind to the membrane, such as MUC1, and those that form gels or are secreted, such as MUC5AC. Various alterations in mucin expression have been revealed to be associated with the development of neoplasia, as they modulate cell growth, karyokinetic transformation, dedifferentiation, adhesion, invasion and immune surveillance. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene and is linked to the development of different types of neoplasia. The incidence of the p53 gene is variable in the pathophysiology of gallbladder cancer. Several studies have revealed an incidence of ~50% of the p53 gene in gallbladder tumors. Studying the immunohistochemical profile of mucins and the presence of different gene mutations in neoplastic lesions of the gallbladder and surrounding mucosa may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the mechanisms involved in tumor development, allowing the identification of patients at increased risk of developing neoplasia, thus leading to improved management.

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September-2022
Volume 24 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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Spandidos Publications style
Bojan A, Foia LG, Vladeanu MC, Bojan IB, Plesoianu C, Plesoianu A and Pricop C: Understanding the mechanisms of gallbladder lesions: A systematic review. Exp Ther Med 24: 604, 2022
APA
Bojan, A., Foia, L.G., Vladeanu, M.C., Bojan, I.B., Plesoianu, C., Plesoianu, A., & Pricop, C. (2022). Understanding the mechanisms of gallbladder lesions: A systematic review. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 24, 604. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11541
MLA
Bojan, A., Foia, L. G., Vladeanu, M. C., Bojan, I. B., Plesoianu, C., Plesoianu, A., Pricop, C."Understanding the mechanisms of gallbladder lesions: A systematic review". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24.3 (2022): 604.
Chicago
Bojan, A., Foia, L. G., Vladeanu, M. C., Bojan, I. B., Plesoianu, C., Plesoianu, A., Pricop, C."Understanding the mechanisms of gallbladder lesions: A systematic review". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24, no. 3 (2022): 604. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11541