Post‑COVID‑19 syndrome in children (Review)
- Filippos Filippatos
- Elizabeth-Barbara Tatsi
- Athanasios Michos
Affiliations: First Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases and Chemotherapy Research Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, ‘Aghia Sophia’ Children's Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece, University Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health and Precision Medicine, 11527 Athens, Greece
- Published online on: August 2, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11547
Copyright: © Filippatos
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
The persistence of symptoms for a long time after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection is now familiar as post‑COVID syndrome (PCS). To the best of our knowledge, the risk of long‑term clinical outcomes in children after SARS‑CoV‑2 infection is still unclear. Unlike in adults, current evidence suggests a lower prevalence of persistent symptoms in children. However, since several studies are characterized by great heterogeneity, it is difficult to accurately estimate the exact incidence of PCS in children. The presence and course of recovery depend on risk factors that are more common in adults than children. Proposed pathophysiological mechanisms in PCS in children include age‑dependent immune responses, angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 expression, blood‑brain barrier development or social issues affecting children behavior, such as school closure and social isolation. However, further longitudinal studies are required for unanswered issues to be clarified. The aim of the present review is to describe the long‑term symptoms per biological system in children, potential risk factors and the role of the immune system in the presence of PCS.