Adult‑onset X‑linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita caused by a novel mutation in DAX1/NR0B1: A case report and literature review
- Yuhan Wang
- Xiufen Liu
- Xiaona Xie
- Jingjing He
- Ying Gao
Affiliations: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China, Department of Ophthalmology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China
- Published online on: August 19, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11565
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Adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare X‑linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (NR0B1) gene, which is also referred to as dosage‑sensitive sex‑reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, in the critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX1). This gene is expressed in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and steroidogenic tissues, including the gonads and adrenal cortex. Adult‑onset forms of X‑linked AHC are a significant cause of concern. In the present study, the case of a 21‑year‑old male who exhibited adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was described. The patient initially presented with nausea, vomiting, fatigue and dizziness. The laboratory results demonstrated that the patient had hyponatremia, a low basal cortisol concentration and increased adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Molecular genetic examination revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.1005delC, p.V336Cfs*36). Following steroid supplementation, the patient's vomiting, fatigue and dizziness rapidly improved. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first case report of adult‑onset X‑linked AHC with this novel frameshift mutation. Furthermore, the present study highlighted differences in the clinical presentation of adult‑onset forms of X‑linked AHC. This may therefore alert medical professionals to the need to perform genetic analysis for DAX1 mutations in adolescents and adults with primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.