Efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen‑axetil combined with nalbuphine pretreatment on remifentanil‑induced postoperative hyperalgesia: A randomized clinical trial
- Ying Zhao
- Hailing Mu
- Jingjing Zhang
- Yao Lu
Affiliations: Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022, P.R. China, Department of Anesthesiology, The Second People's Hospital of Wuhu, Wuhu, Anhui 241001, P.R. China
- Published online on: August 22, 2023 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2023.12174
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Remifentanil‑induced hyperalgesia (RIH) is a common and complicated issue in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), which significantly reduces patient satisfaction. The present trial was designed to clarify the individual and combined effects of flurbiprofen‑axetil and nalbuphine on remifentanil‑induced hyperalgesia. This randomized double‑blind clinical trial included 120 adult patients who underwent LC at The Second People's Hospital of Wuhu. The individuals were randomized into a flurbiprofen‑axetil group (F group), nalbuphine group (N group), flurbiprofen‑axetil combined with nalbuphine group (FN group) and saline group (S group). The four groups were given flurbiprofen‑axetil (50 mg, iv.), nalbuphine (0.1 mg/kg, iv.), flurbiprofen‑axetil (50 mg, iv.) combined with nalbuphine (0.1 mg/kg, iv.) or normal saline respectively prior to skin incision. The primary outcome was the postoperative mechanical pain thresholds at the inner forearm and peri‑incisional area. The secondary outcomes were the visual analog scale (VAS) and Ramsay sedation scale at 0.5, 1, 4 and 24 h after surgery, and any other adverse events. The pain threshold of the medial forearm in the FN group did not differ from that in the F and N groups at 24 h after surgery (P=0.310 and P=0.910, respectively). However, the pain threshold around the incision in FN group was significantly lower than that in F and N groups 24 h after surgery (P=0.001). The VAS of the F group, N group and FN group were all significantly lower than that in the S group at 0.5, 1 and 24 h after surgery (P<0.001). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of adverse events between the four groups. Single flurbiprofen‑axetil and single nalbuphine effectively prevented RIH 24 h after surgery in LC. The combination of the two analgesic drugs, with different mechanisms of action, was not superior to single therapy. The present study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration no. ChiCTR2100045347).