Effects of the energy density and sweetness of porridges used in the complementary feeding of infants on energy and nutrient intakes
- Sandrine Estelle Kouton
- Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin
- Sam Bodjrenou
- Mohamed M. Soumanou
Affiliations: Research Unit in Enzymatic and Food Engineering, Polytechnic School of Abomey‑Calavi (EPAC), University of Abomey‑Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benin, School of Nutrition, Foods Sciences and Technology/Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/University of Abomey‑Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin
- Published online on: September 21, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijfn.2021.20
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In the present study, under free‑living conditions, 30 breastfed children, aged 6 to 23 months, were successively fed three complementary porridges in order to examine the effect of energy density (ED) and sweetness on energy and nutrient intake (ENI). Two high ED porridges, such as malted (Fg3, 124.92 kcal), fermented (F3, 120.36 kcal) and low ED porridge (G1, 60 kcal) were consumed. The sucrose content of the high and low ED porridges was 15 and 5%, respectively. The results revealed that the amount consumed of F3 (282.2 ml for group 1, 6 to 11 months old; and 365 ml for group 2, 12 to 23 months old) was higher than that of Fg3 (231.20 and 331.30 ml for groups 1 and 2, respectively) and G1 (105 and 129.10 ml for groups 1 and 2, respectively). Despite the amounts consumed of Fg3, the ENI from Fg3 was higher than that of F3 and G1. The consumption of F3 and Fg3 increased the energy intake (EI) by 74 and 78%, respectively (23.25 and 26.56 vs. 5.97 Kcal/kg/meal; P<0.001) in group 1 and by 78 and 83%, respectively (24.37 and 30.82 vs. 5.24 Kcal/kg/meal; P<0.001) in group 2 in comparison with the EI from G1. Thus, the consumption of sweet porridge with a high ED (Fg3) composed of local ingredients increased, at least by 78 and 83%, in the infants of group 1 and 2, respectively, the EI from porridges in comparison with the EI from low the ED porridge, G1. The ENI was significantly (P<0.001) higher with the sweetness and dry matter of porridges than with the low sweetness and dry matter porridge. Consequently, Fg3 has a high coverage and this permits it to cover >36% of daily energy needs, as well as 73, 93 and 48% of daily iron, zinc and calcium needs, respectively.