Open Access

Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

  • Authors:
    • Young Ock Kim
    • Hwa-Young Lee
    • Hansol Won
    • Seong-Su Nah
    • Hyung-Ki Kim
    • Jun-Tack Kwon
    • Hak-Jae Kim
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 13, 2014     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.2003
  • Pages: 103-109
  • Copyright: © Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY_NC 3.0].

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Abstract

The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
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January 2015
Volume 35 Issue 1

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APA
Kim, Y.O., Lee, H., Won, H., Nah, S., Kim, H., Kwon, J., & Kim, H. (2015). Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 35, 103-109. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.2003
MLA
Kim, Y. O., Lee, H., Won, H., Nah, S., Kim, H., Kwon, J., Kim, H."Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 35.1 (2015): 103-109.
Chicago
Kim, Y. O., Lee, H., Won, H., Nah, S., Kim, H., Kwon, J., Kim, H."Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 35, no. 1 (2015): 103-109. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.2003