Open Access

Molecular mechanisms of cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Fan Zhang
    • Xueling Zhao
    • Hongxing Shen
    • Caiguo Zhang
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  • Published online on: April 21, 2016     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2016.2573
  • Pages: 1439-1448
  • Copyright: © Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are complex structures that consist of three parts, namely, nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus and cartilage endplates. With aging, IVDs gradually degenerate as a consequence of many factors, such as microenvironment changes and cell death. Human clinical trial and animal model studies have documented that cell death, particularly apoptosis and autophagy, significantly contribute to IVD degeneration. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include the activation of apoptotic pathways and the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient deprivation and multiple stresses. In this review, we briefly summarize recent progress in understanding the function and regulation of apoptosis and autophagy signaling pathways. In particular, we focus on studies that reveal the functional mechanisms of these pathways in IVD degeneration.
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June 2016
Volume 37 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Zhang, F., Zhao, X., Shen, H., & Zhang, C. (2016). Molecular mechanisms of cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 37, 1439-1448. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2016.2573
MLA
Zhang, F., Zhao, X., Shen, H., Zhang, C."Molecular mechanisms of cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 37.6 (2016): 1439-1448.
Chicago
Zhang, F., Zhao, X., Shen, H., Zhang, C."Molecular mechanisms of cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 37, no. 6 (2016): 1439-1448. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2016.2573