Open Access

Large intestine embryogenesis: Molecular pathways and related disorders (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Antonios Kostouros
    • Ioannis Koliarakis
    • Konstantinos Natsis
    • Demetrios A. Spandidos
    • Aristidis Tsatsakis
    • John Tsiaoussis
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 21, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4583
  • Pages: 27-57
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Abstract

The large intestine, part of the gastrointestinal tract (GI), is composed of all three germ layers, namely the endoderm, the mesoderm and the ectoderm, forming the epithelium, the smooth muscle layers and the enteric nervous system, respectively. Since gastrulation, these layers develop simultaneously during embryogenesis, signaling to each other continuously until adult age. Two invaginations, the anterior intestinal portal (AIP) and the caudal/posterior intestinal portal (CIP), elongate and fuse, creating the primitive gut tube, which is then patterned along the antero‑posterior (AP) axis and the radial (RAD) axis in the context of left‑right (LR) asymmetry. These events lead to the formation of three distinct regions, the foregut, midgut and hindgut. All the above‑mentioned phenomena are under strict control from various molecular pathways, which are critical for the normal intestinal development and function. Specifically, the intestinal epithelium constitutes a constantly developing tissue, deriving from the progenitor stem cells at the bottom of the intestinal crypt. Epithelial differentiation strongly depends on the crosstalk with the adjacent mesoderm. Major molecular pathways that are implicated in the embryogenesis of the large intestine include the canonical and non‑canonical wingless‑related integration site (Wnt), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Notch and hedgehog systems. The aberrant regulation of these pathways inevitably leads to several intestinal malformation syndromes, such as atresia, stenosis, or agangliosis. Novel theories, involving the regulation and homeostasis of intestinal stem cells, suggest an embryological basis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, the present review article summarizes the diverse roles of these molecular factors in intestinal embryogenesis and related disorders.
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July 2020
Volume 46 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Kostouros, A., Koliarakis, I., Natsis, K., Spandidos, D.A., Tsatsakis, A., & Tsiaoussis, J. (2020). Large intestine embryogenesis: Molecular pathways and related disorders (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 46, 27-57. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4583
MLA
Kostouros, A., Koliarakis, I., Natsis, K., Spandidos, D. A., Tsatsakis, A., Tsiaoussis, J."Large intestine embryogenesis: Molecular pathways and related disorders (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 46.1 (2020): 27-57.
Chicago
Kostouros, A., Koliarakis, I., Natsis, K., Spandidos, D. A., Tsatsakis, A., Tsiaoussis, J."Large intestine embryogenesis: Molecular pathways and related disorders (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 46, no. 1 (2020): 27-57. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4583