Open Access

Evaluation of changes in the tumor microenvironment after sorafenib therapy by sequential histology and 18F-fluoromisonidazole hypoxia imaging in renal cell carcinoma

  • Authors:
    • Masahiro Murakami
    • Songji Zhao
    • Yan Zhao
    • Nusrat Fatema Chowdhury
    • Wenwen Yu
    • Ken-Ichi Nishijima
    • Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
    • Nagara Tamaki
    • Yuji Kuge
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: September 10, 2012     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1624
  • Pages: 1593-1600
  • Copyright: © Murakami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY_NC 3.0].

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Abstract

The mechanistic dissociation of ‘tumor starvation’ versus ‘vascular normalization’ following anti-angiogenic therapy is a subject of intense controversy in the field of experimental research. In addition, accurately evaluating changes of the tumor microenvironment after anti-angiogenic therapy is important for optimizing treatment strategy. Sorafenib has considerable anti-angiogenic effects that lead to tumor starvation and induce tumor hypoxia in the highly vascularized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenografts. 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F‑FMISO) is a proven hypoxia imaging probe. Thus, to clarify early changes in the tumor microenvironment following anti-angiogenic therapy and whether 18F-FMISO imaging can detect those changes, we evaluated early changes in the tumor microenvironment after sorafenib treatment in an RCC xenograft by sequential histological analysis and 18F-FMISO autoradiography (ARG). A human RCC xenograft (A498) was established in nude mice, for histological studies and ARG, and further assigned to the control and sorafenib-treated groups (80 mg/kg, per os). Mice were sacrificed on Days 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the histological study, and on Days 3 and 7 in ARG after sorafenib treatment. Tumor volume was measured every day. 18F-FMISO and pimonidazole were injected intravenously 4 and 2 h before sacrifice, respectively. Tumor sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically with pimonidazole and CD31. Intratumoral 18F-FMISO distribution was quantified in ARG. Tumor volume did not significantly change on Day 7 after sorafenib treatment. In the histological study, hypoxic fraction significantly increased on Day 2, mean vessel density significantly decreased on Day 1 and necrosis area significantly increased on Day 2 after sorafenib treatment. Intratumoral 18F-FMISO distribution significantly increased on Days 3 (10.2-fold, p<0.01) and 7 (4.1-fold, p<0.01) after sorafenib treatment. The sequential histological evaluation of the tumor microenvironment clarified tumor starvation in A498 xenografts treated with sorafenib. 18F-FMISO hypoxia imaging confirmed the tumor starvation. 18F-FMISO PET may contribute to determine an optimum treatment protocol after anti-angiogenic therapy.
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November 2012
Volume 41 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Murakami, M., Zhao, S., Zhao, Y., Chowdhury, N.F., Yu, W., Nishijima, K. ... Kuge, Y. (2012). Evaluation of changes in the tumor microenvironment after sorafenib therapy by sequential histology and 18F-fluoromisonidazole hypoxia imaging in renal cell carcinoma. International Journal of Oncology, 41, 1593-1600. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1624
MLA
Murakami, M., Zhao, S., Zhao, Y., Chowdhury, N. F., Yu, W., Nishijima, K., Takiguchi, M., Tamaki, N., Kuge, Y."Evaluation of changes in the tumor microenvironment after sorafenib therapy by sequential histology and 18F-fluoromisonidazole hypoxia imaging in renal cell carcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 41.5 (2012): 1593-1600.
Chicago
Murakami, M., Zhao, S., Zhao, Y., Chowdhury, N. F., Yu, W., Nishijima, K., Takiguchi, M., Tamaki, N., Kuge, Y."Evaluation of changes in the tumor microenvironment after sorafenib therapy by sequential histology and 18F-fluoromisonidazole hypoxia imaging in renal cell carcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 41, no. 5 (2012): 1593-1600. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1624