Cerebral metastasis during remission after immunotherapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma: A case report
- Shohei Iwata
- Fusako Niimi
- Tetsuya Danno
- Sachi Honda
- Takeshi Azuma
Affiliations: Department of Urology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Fuchu, Tokyo 183‑0042, Japan
- Published online on: May 24, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2307
Copyright: © Iwata
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is rare. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which were developed for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer, have limited efficacy against CNS metastases due to the unique immune microenvironment of the brain. The brain is an immune‑privileged organ and is protected by the blood‑brain barrier. However, the management of CNS metastases of UC is crucial to improving the prognosis. The present report describes two cases of cerebral metastasis occurring in the context of systemic disease control using immunotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first to describe a CNS metastasis during remission induced by immunotherapy.