Open Access

Fascin‑1 is associated with recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma

  • Authors:
    • Yumiko Yamamoto
    • Yoshihiro Hayashi
    • Hideyuki Sakaki
    • Ichiro Murakami
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: August 8, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2361
  • Article Number: 199
  • Copyright: © Yamamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Fascin‑1, an actin‑bundling protein, is associated with poor prognosis in patients with various types of human carcinoma. However, research is limited on the role of fascin‑1 in sarcoma. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) are rare sarcomas derived from the mesenchyme. Although the prognosis of SFT/HPC is generally favorable, fatalities are possible with repeated recurrence and distant metastasis. The current study included a total of 20 Japanese patients, who were diagnosed with SFT/HPC and underwent surgery at Kochi University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2019. The statistical relationship between recurrence and the following variables were examined: Sex, age of onset, tumor origin, tumor size, necrosis, mitosis ≥1/10 high power field (HPF; magnification, x400), Ki‑67 >5% and Fascin‑1. A significant association was determined between recurrence and necrosis, mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400), Ki‑67 >5%, and Fascin‑1 ≥‘strongly positive’ (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that Fascin‑1 immunostaining may be a highly effective and useful evaluation factor for predicting poor prognosis in patients with SFT/HPC, a fatal sarcoma of humans.

Introduction

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) are rare tumors that derive from mesenchyme. SFT and HPC were formerly considered to be different diseases, however closely related due to similarities observed in immunohistochemical positive staining in CD34, CD99, vimentin, BCL2, and epithelial membrane antigen (1-5). This lack of specificity in SFT/HPC occasionally caused problems in differentiating them from other tumors that are immunohistologically alike them. In 2013, three groups reported that SFT and HPC have a common gene fusion between NGFI-A-binding protein 2 (NAB2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) (1,6,7). Thereafter, STAT6, which has dual functions as a signal transducer and as transcription activator in SFT and HPC, was recognized as the highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for SFT/HPC (2-5,8-11).

Clinical progression of SFT/HPC is different in each case. For example, we reported one case where it was diagnosed accidentally and treated completely by a successful surgery, whereas in other cases relapse occurred with local recurrence and/or multiple metastases after many years of surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy and/or intensive chemotherapy (1,3,9,10,12-18). Regardless of the many attempts that have been made to classify NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants to prognose clinical characteristics of SFT/HPC, any absolute fusion variant related to malignancy has not yet been detected (11,19,20). However, recently classical grading of SFT/HPC with histopathological backgrounds, such as mitosis and necrosis, have been reevaluated to detect factors that may be associated with a malignant prognosis (15,16,21). Furthermore, several groups reported that Ki-67, a protein widely known to associate with a poor prognosis in various cancers (2,22-25), is related to recurrence in SFT/HPC derived from the pleura and central nervous system (2,14,15). We also detected a significant relationship to recurrence between necrosis, mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400), and Ki-67 >5% in SFT/HPC regardless of its origin (26).

In this study, we added evaluation of Fascin-1 immunostaining as a potential factor that may predict recurrence of SFT/HPC. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, plays an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration and invasion (27,28). It is known that Fascin-1 has a strong upregulation in various human carcinomas. However, regarding sarcomas, there are only a few earlier reports (29). Our study showed that Fascin-1 was strongly associated with recurrence of SFT/SFT and it suggested that Fascin-1 could be used as a predictive factor for malignancy of SFT/HPC.

Materials and methods

Materials

A total of 20 Japanese patients, previously diagnosed with SFT/HPC at Kochi University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2019, were included in this study. Table I shows the backgrounds of these patients. All patients underwent one or more tumor resection surgery. Tissues obtained during surgery were embedded in paraffin blocks after formalin fixation and preserved. All patients were observed at Kochi University Hospital following surgery. Seven cases had one or more recurrence and two patients (cases III and VII) died due to the disease.

Table I

Clinical background of patients.

Table I

Clinical background of patients.

CaseSexAge of onset (years)Tumor locationTumor size (cm)STAT6Ki-67 >5%Mitosis ≥1/10 HPFNecrosisFascin-1RecurrenceRecurrence free months
IF80-89Bone and soft tissue3.5+---+-205
IIF50-59Bone and soft tissue10.5+-----198
IIIM50-59Bone and soft tissue12.5+++-Strongly positive+89
IVM70-79Bone and soft tissue10.0++++Strongly positive+0
VM60-69Bone and soft tissue15.0+---+-97
VIM30-39Bone and soft tissue11.0+-----91
VIIF70-79Bone and soft tissue10.0++++Strongly positive+4
VIIIF50-59Bone and soft tissue12.5+---+-60
IXF60-69Bone and soft tissue9.0+---+-6
XF50-59Head and neck1.7++--+-175
XIF60-69Lung4.0+-----170
XIIM70-79Lung6.0++++-+2
XIIIM30-39Lung14.0+---+-114
XIVF50-59Lung8.0+-----111
XVF30-39CNS1.0+-+-Strongly positive+136
XVIM60-69CNS5.0+-----195
XVIIF50-59CNS2.0+-----188
XVIIIF60-69CNS1.0+++--+2
XIXF30-39CNS5.5+++-Strongly positive+49
XXF60-69CNS1.5+-+---49

[i] STAT6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6; F, female; M, male; CNS, central nervous system; +, positive; -, negative; HPF, high power field (magnification, x400).

Immunohistochemical examination and evaluation

For the present study, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were freshly cut into 4 µm thick slices and heat-treated with ULTRA cell conditioning 1 retrieval solution (CC1; Ventana Automated Systems). Immunohistochemical examination was performed using a Ventana automated system with the following antibodies: STAT6 (D-1, sc-374021, dilution 1:50; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), Ki-67 (MIB-1, dilution 1:50; Dako; Agilent Technologies, Inc.), and anti-Fascin-1 mouse monoclonal antibody (55k-2, dilution 1:50; Dako; Agilent Technologies, Inc.). Immunohistochemical expression of STAT6, Ki-67, and Fascin-1 was evaluated in the density of the nuclear staining and graded as ‘negative’, ‘weak’, ‘moderate’, or ‘strong’. Grades ‘moderate’ and ‘strong’, were then defined as ‘positive’ in terms of diagnosis. To investigate the proportion of positive Ki-67, a total of 100 tumor cells were counted at five different hot spots. Then, the mean value of positive cells was calculated and input as a percentage for statistical analysis. As for the evaluation for Fascin-1, the intensity and extent of staining were examined (28,29). The intensity of staining was scored as 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), or 3 (strong). The extent of staining was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-20%), 2 (21-70%), and 3 (71-100%). When the sum of staining intensity and extent scores was 2-4 and 5-6, it was defined as ‘positive’ and ‘strongly positive’, respectively. Independent evaluation of immunostaining was performed by two different expert pathologists who were blinded to the clinical data.

Statistical analysis

Statistical relationship was examined between recurrence and the following variables: Sex, onset age, tumor origin, tumor size, mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400), necrosis, Ki-67>5% and Fascin-1. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis was applied to detect relationship between recurrence and sex, tumor origin, mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400), necrosis, or Ki-67>5%. Logistic regression analysis and Wilcoxon rank test were applied to compare recurrence with tumor size and onset age, respectively. Regarding Fascin-1, after the determination of its cut-off point for recurrence as between ‘positive’ and ‘strongly positive’, Wilcoxon rank test was applied to detect the relationship between recurrence and Fascin ≥‘strongly positive’. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to analyze the recurrence-free survival distributions between patients with Fascin-1 ‘strongly positive’ or not.

This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research of the School of Medicine, Kochi University (ERB-105384). All procedures were carried out with the adequate understanding and written consent of each patient.

Results

Clinical background of patients

Table I includes the results of histopathological and immunochemical evaluation of all cases.

Fascin-1 staining

Table II shows sensitivity, false positive rate, and concordance rate in two proposed groups with different cut-off points of Fascin-1 immunostaining. When the cut-off point was set between ‘positive’ and ‘strongly positive’, the sensitivity, false positive rate, and concordance were 0.71, 0.00, and 0.90, respectively. On the other hand, when the cut-off point was set between ‘negative’ and ‘positive’, its sensitivity, false positive rate and concordance were 0.71, 0.46 and 0.6, respectively. By these findings, the most effective cut-off point of Fascin-1 was determined to be between ‘positive’ and ‘strongly positive’.

Table II

Examination of Fascin-1 staining cut off points.

Table II

Examination of Fascin-1 staining cut off points.

Cut-off point for Fascin-1 stainingSensitivityFalse positive rateConcordance rate
‘negative’-‘positive’,‘strongly positive’0.710.460.60
‘negative’,‘positive’-‘strongly positive’0.710.000.90

[i] The most effective cut-off point for Fascin-1 staining for the judgement of recurrence (+) was between ‘positive’ and ‘strongly positive’, where sensitivity, false positive rate and concordance were 0.71, 0.00 and 0.90, respectively.

Statistical analyses

Table III shows the results of relationship between recurrence and each variable. A significant relationship to reference was detected with necrosis (P<0.05), mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400) (P<0.01), Ki-67 >5% (P<0.01), and Fascin-1 ≥‘strongly positive’ (P<0.01). Sex, onset age, tumor size, or tumor origin did not relate to recurrence. Fig. 1 shows representative images of the microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, specifically from Case XVI and Case XIX, where Fascin-1 was ‘negative’ in Case XVI and was ‘strongly positive’ in Case XIX. Fig. 2 shows Kaplan-Meier curve of patients with Fascin-1 ‘strongly positive’ or not.

Table III

Analyses of the relationship between recurrence and each variable.

Table III

Analyses of the relationship between recurrence and each variable.

VariablesP-value
Male vs. femaleNS
Onset ageNS
Tumor originNS
Tumor size (cm)NS
Necrosis<0.05
Ki-67 >5%<0.01
Mitosis >1/10 HPF<0.01
Fascin-1 ≥strongly positive<0.01

[i] Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis was applied to detect the relationship between recurrence and sex, tumor origin, necrosis, mitosis ≥1-10 HPF (magnification, x400), or Ki-67>5%. Logistic regression analysis was applied to compare recurrence with tumor size. Wilcoxon rank test was applied to compare recurrence with onset age and Fascin-1 ≥ʻstrongly positiveʼ.

Discussion

SFT and HPC had long been regarded as different tumors since 1931, when Klemperer and Coleman first reported on primary mesenchymal tumors of the pleura (29). However, after the year 2000, controversial discussions about the classification of SFT/HPC prompted a unification of these tumors into a single disease entity. As a result, the 2013 WHO Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone removed the term ‘hemangiopericytoma’ as a synonym for SFT, joining these tumors together as SFT under the category of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (5,8,30-32). In the same year, the common gene fusion between NAB2 and STAT6 was discovered in SFT/HPC. The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System designated these tumors, characterized by the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, as SFT/HPC in mesenchymal/non-mesenchymal tumors (2,9,33,34).

The discovery of the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, has resulted in both quicker and more accurate diagnosis of SFT/HPC. Cases difficult to diagnose with classical immunostainings, such as CD34, CD99, and vimentin, can easily be definitively diagnosed as SFT/HPC through the evaluation of STAT6 immunostaining. The prognosis of SFT/HPC is generally favorable, however, fatalities are possible with repeated recurrence and distant metastasis. In this study, seven of 20 cases had recurrence and two patients passed away due to the disease. The advancement of diagnostic techniques for SFT/HPC by STAT6 immunostaining may result in more cases being properly diagnosed in the future. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to identify patients with high risk of recurrence to adequately carry out their follow-ups.

Previously, we reported that recurrence of SFT/HPC was significantly related to necrosis, mitosis ≥1/10 HPF (magnification, x400), and Ki-67 >5% (26). Here, an additional factor potentially related to recurrence has been added, specifically, Fascin-1 immunostaining. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, plays an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and invasion (27-29,35). Fascin-1 widely exists in different tissues of the human body, such as mesenchyme and nervous tissue, however it is not present in most normal epithelia. Fascin-1 has been commonly observed to be highly upregulated in various human carcinomas (27,28). Furthermore, the overexpression of Fascin-1 is positively correlated with poor prognosis of carcinomas, because it increases the chance of metastasis. Regarding sarcomas, few reports had been made about any relationship with Fascin-1. However, after 2019, Arlt et al reported Fascin-1 expression also correlates with progression and metastasis in osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma (29). Additionally, Richmond et al reported that Fascin-1 is a mediator of invasion in uterine carcinosarcoma as a component of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (35).

Since 2012, pazopanib hydrochloride, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma in Japan, and its effectiveness has been reported in several papers (36,37). In this study, three patients (Case VII, XV and XI) had been treated with pazopanib hydrochloride, however, Case VII patient passed away within six months following its administration. The development of new medicines that may directly target the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is desired for patients with SFT/HPC. Furthermore, additional therapeutics that may target and inhibit Fascin-1 will also greatly benefit patients with malignant tumors.

We attempted to detect the relationship between Fascin-1 immunostaining and recurrence of SFT/HPC. Presently, classical histological findings, such as mitosis and necrosis, are generally accepted to be useful to prognose its recurrence. As shown in Table I, sensitivity of mitosis was excellent, but there was a false-positive case. As for necrosis, its specificity was excellent, but there were four false-negative cases, which implied necrosis was not a clinically favorable factor to predict its recurrence. Regarding Fascin-1, as shown in Tables I and II, sensitivity was 0.71 and two cases had false-negative, although, its false-positive rate was 0.0 and it was negative in Case XX, where mitosis had a false-positive. By using two factors, Fascin-1 and mitosis, recurrence in SFT/HPC could be prognosed more accurately. To confirm the benefit of Fascin-1 as a factor to predict recurrence in SFT/HPC, further studies with more cases should be performed in the future. However, in this study, we observed Fascin-1 immunostaining to be one of the most effective and useful evaluation factors to predict poor prognosis in patients with SFT/HPC. Through a meticulous histological and immunochemical observation of these factors after the initial surgery, clinicians should be better informed during follow-ups with patients most at risk for recurrence and subsequently able to treat them at early stages of recurrence.

The evaluation of Fascin-1 immunostaining is useful for recurrence prediction of SFT/HPC. These data indicate that Fascin-1 may play an important role in the recurrence of SFT/HPC, one of sarcomas.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors' contributions

YY and YH conceived the current study. YY and YH performed the histological examination. YY and HS performed statistical analysis. YY and IM made substantial contributions to study conception and design. IM critically revised the manuscript and gave final approval for the manuscript to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. YY and YH confirmed the authenticity of all the raw data.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The current study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research of the School of Medicine, Kochi University (approval no. ERB-105384). All procedures were carried out with adequate understanding and the written consent of each patient.

Patient consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

1 

Robinson DR, Wu YM, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Cao X, Lonigro RJ, Sung YS, Chen CL, Zhang L, Wang R, Su F, et al: Identification of recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in solitary fibrous tumor by integrative sequencing. Nat Genet. 45:180–185. 2013.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

2 

Shukla P, Gulwani HV, Kaur S and Shanmugasundaram D: Reappraisal of morphological and immunohistochemical spectrum of intracranial and spinal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas with impact on long-term follow-up. Indian J Cancer. 55:214–221. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

3 

Davanzo B, Emerson RE, Lisy M, Koniaris LG and Kays JK: Solitary fibrous tumor. Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol. 3(94)2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

4 

Zhang Q, Qin J, Li Y and Wu T: Primary solitary fibrous tumor of kidney: A case report and literature review. Urol Case Rep. 23:92–94. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

5 

Doyle LA, Vivero M, Fletcher CD, Mertens F and Hornick JL: Nuclear expression of STAT6 distinguishes solitary fibrous tumor from histologic mimics. Mod Pathol. 27:390–395. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

6 

Chmielecki J, Crago AM, Rosenberg M, O'Connor R, Walker SR, Ambrogio L, Auclair D, McKenna A, Heinrich MC, Frank DA and Meyerson M: Whole-exome sequencing identifies a recurrent NAB2-STAT6 fusion in solitary fibrous tumors. Nat Genet. 45:131–132. 2013.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

7 

Mohajeri A, Tayebwa J, Collin A, Nilsson J, Magnusson L, von Steyern FV, Brosjö O, Domanski HA, Larsson O, Sciot R, et al: Comprehensive genetic analysis identifies a pathognomonic NAB2/STAT6 fusion gene, nonrandom secondary genomic imbalances, and a characteristic gene expression profile in solitary fibrous tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 52:873–886. 2013.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

8 

Schweizer L, Koelsche C, Sahm F, Piro RM, Capper D, Reuss DE, Pusch S, Habel A, Meyer J, Göck T, et al: Meningeal hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumors carry the NAB2-STAT6 fusion and can be diagnosed by nuclear expression of STAT6 protein. Acta Neuropathol. 125:651–658. 2013.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

9 

Rinaldo L, Xu SCY, Eggers SD, Salomão DR, Chen JJ and Raghunathan A: Rare occurrence of an intraocular choroidal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma. Ocul Oncol Pathol. 4:213–219. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

10 

Tai HC, Chuang IC, Chen TC, Li CF, Huang SC, Kao YC, Lin PC, Tsai JW, Lan J, Yu SC, et al: NAB2-STAT6 fusion types account for clinicopathological variations in solitary fibrous tumors. Mod Pathol. 28:1324–1335. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

11 

Kakkar A, Sakthivel P, Rajeshwari M, Kairo A and Sharma MC: Recurrent sinonasal CD34-negative malignant solitary fibrous tumor diagnosed on STAT6 immunohistochemistry and NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Head Neck Pathol. 14:250–256. 2020.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

12 

Penel N, Amela EY, Decanter G, Robin YM and Marec-Berard P: Solitary fibrous tumors and so-called hemangiopericytoma. Sarcoma. 2012(690251)2012.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

13 

Thway K, Ng W, Noujaim J, Jones RL and Fisher C: The current status of solitary fibrous tumor: Diagnostic features, variants, and genetics. Int J Surg Pathol. 24:281–292. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

14 

Schmid S, Csanadi A, Kaifi JT, Kübler M, Haager B, Kayser G, Passlick B and Wiesemann S: Prognostic factors in solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura. J Surg Res. 195:580–587. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

15 

Diebold M, Soltermann A, Hottinger S, Haile SR, Bubendorf L, Komminoth P, Jochum W, Grobholz R, Theegarten D, Berezowska S, et al: Prognostic value of MIB-1 proliferation index in solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura implemented in a new score-a multicenter study. Respir Res. 18(210)2017.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

16 

Fountas KN, Kapsalaki E, Kassam M, Feltes CH, Dimopoulos VG, Robinson JS and Smith JR: Management of intracranial meningeal hemangiopericytomas: Outcome and experience. Neurosurg Rev. 29:145–153. 2006.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

17 

Robinson LA: Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. Cancer Control. 13:264–269. 2006.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

18 

Ghose A, Guha G, Kundu R, Tew J and Chaudhary R: CNS hemangiopericytoma: A systematic review of 523 patients. Am J Clin Oncol. 40:223–227. 2017.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

19 

Yuzawa S, Nishihara H, Wang L, Tsuda M, Kimura T, Tanino M and Tanaka S: Analysis of NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in 17 cases of meningeal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma: Review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 40:1031–1040. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

20 

Vogels R, Macagno N, Griewank K, Groenen P, Verdijk M, Fonville J and Kusters B: French CNS SFT/HPC Consortium; Dutch CNS SFT/HPC Consortium. Figarella-Branger D, et al: Prognostic significance of NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants and TERT promotor mutations in solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas of the CNS: Not (yet) clear. Acta Neuropathol. 137:679–682. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

21 

England DM, Hochholzer L and McCarthy MJ: Localized benign and malignant fibrous tumors of the pleura. A clinicopathologic review of 223 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 13:640–658. 1989.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

22 

Piri R, Ghaffari A, Azami-Aghdash S, Ali-Akbar YP, Saleh P and Naghavi-Behzad M: Ki-67/MIB-1 as a prognostic marker in cervical cancer-a systematic review with meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 16:6997–7002. 2015.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

23 

Prueter J, Norvell D and Backous D: Ki-67 index as a predictor of vestibular schwannoma regrowth or recurrence. J Laryngol Otol. 133:205–207. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

24 

Kammerer-Jacquet SF, Ahmad A, Møller H, Sandu H, Scardino P, Soosay G, Beltran L, Guzick J and Berney DM: Ki-67 is an independent predictor of prostate cancer death in routine needle biopsy samples: Proving utility for routine assessments. Mod Pathol. 32:1303–1309. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

25 

Go SI, Ko GH, Lee WS, Lee JH, Jeong SH, Lee YJ, Hong SC and Ha WS: The use of CD44 variant 9 and Ki-67 combination can predicts prognosis better than their single use in early gastric cancer. Cancer Res Treat. 51:1411–1419. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

26 

Yamamoto Y, Hayashi Y and Murakami I: Recurrence of solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma could be predicted by Ki-67 regardless of its origin. Acta Med Okayama. 74:335–343. 2020.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

27 

Hayashi Y, Osanai M and Lee GH: Fascin-1 expression correlates with repression of E-cadherin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and augments their invasiveness in combination with matrix metalloproteinases. Cancer Sci. 102:1228–1235. 2011.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

28 

Wang CQ, Tang CH, Chang HT, Li XN, Zhao YM, Su CM, Hu GN, Zhang T, Sun XX, Zen Y, et al: Fascin-1 as a novel diagnostic marker of triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Med. 5:1983–1988. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

29 

Arlt MJ, Kuzmanov A, Snedeker JG, Fuchs B, Silvan U and Sabile AA: Fascin-1 enhances experimental osteosarcoma tumor formation and metastasis and is related to poor patient outcome. BMC Cancer. 19(83)2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

30 

Barthelmeß S, Geddert H, Boltze C, Moskalev EA, Bieg M, Sirbu H, Brors B, Wiemann S, Hartmann A, Agaimy A and Haller F: Solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas with different variants of the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion are characterized by specific histomorphology and distinct clinicopathological features. Am J Pathol. 184:1209–1218. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

31 

Doyle LA: Sarcoma classification: An update based on the 2013 World Health Organization classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. Cancer. 120:1763–1774. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

32 

Jo VY and Fletcher CD: WHO classification of soft tissue tumours: An update based on the 2013 (4th) edition. Pathology. 46:95–104. 2014.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

33 

Louis DN, Perry A, Reifenberger G, von Deimling A, Figarella-Branger D, Cavenee WK, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Kleihues P and Ellison DW: The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: A summary. Acta Neuropathol. 131:803–820. 2016.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

34 

Macagno N, Vogels R, Appay R, Colin C and Mokhtari K: French CNS SFT/HPC Consortium; Dutch CNS SFT/HPC Consortium. Küsters B, Wesseling P, Figarella-Branger D, et al: Grading of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas: Analysis of the prognostic value of the marseille grading system in a cohort of 132 patients. Brain Pathol. 29:18–27. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

35 

Richmond AM, Blake EA, Torkko K, Smith EE, Spillman MA and Post MD: Fascin is associated with aggressive behavior and poor outcome in uterine carcinosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 27:1895–1903. 2017.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

36 

Apra C, Alentorn A, Mokhtari K, Kalamarides M and Sanson M: Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas. J Neurooncol. 139:369–372. 2018.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

37 

Martin-Broto J, Stacchiotti S, Lopez-Pousa A, Redondo A, Bernabeu D, de Alava E, Casali PG, Italiano A, Gutierrez A, Moura DS, et al: Pazopanib for treatment of advanced malignant and dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumour: A multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 20:134–144. 2019.PubMed/NCBI View Article : Google Scholar

Related Articles

Journal Cover

October-2021
Volume 15 Issue 4

Print ISSN: 2049-9450
Online ISSN:2049-9469

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
x
Spandidos Publications style
Yamamoto Y, Hayashi Y, Sakaki H and Murakami I: Fascin‑1 is associated with recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma. Mol Clin Oncol 15: 199, 2021
APA
Yamamoto, Y., Hayashi, Y., Sakaki, H., & Murakami, I. (2021). Fascin‑1 is associated with recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma. Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 15, 199. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2361
MLA
Yamamoto, Y., Hayashi, Y., Sakaki, H., Murakami, I."Fascin‑1 is associated with recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 15.4 (2021): 199.
Chicago
Yamamoto, Y., Hayashi, Y., Sakaki, H., Murakami, I."Fascin‑1 is associated with recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 15, no. 4 (2021): 199. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2361