Organoids and epithelial ovarian cancer ‑ a future tool for personalized treatment decisions? (Review)
- Yagmur Sisman
- Tine Schnack
- Estrid Høgdall
- Claus Høgdall
Affiliations: Department of Gynecology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark, Department of Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark, Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
- Published online on: December 10, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2462
Copyright: © Sisman
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer‑associated death in females worldwide. Although 80% of cases respond well to initial treatment, >70% develop recurrent disease and become chemoresistant within the first two years. Therefore, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers to guide treatment. In the era of precision medicine, organoids are studied as a functional method to predict treatment response to oncological treatment. The overall purpose of the present systematic review was to uncover the current status of patient‑derived organoids and their ability to perform drug screenings for EOC. A systematic search for studies investigating ovarian cancer and organoids was performed using PubMed and the Cochrane Library. A total of 10 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The growth rates of organoids were described in six studies and varied between 29 and 90%. Only four studies included data on clinical outcomes and indicated a positive correlation between clinical response and drug screening results. Inter‑ and intratumoral heterogeneity was examined in seven studies. They all suggested that the organoids recapture the tumor heterogeneity. Only one study performed drug screenings on organoids obtained from different tumor sites and metastasis from the same patient with EOC and revealed a different response to at least one drug for all patients. In conclusion, organoids may provide a platform for predicting the clinical response to chemotherapy and gene‑targeting therapy. However, the results are only exploratory and the number of published drug screening studies is minimal. Further research is required to prove that organoids are able to support the choice of oncological treatment in patients with EOC.