Upregulation of GLUT4 and PI3K, and downregulation of GSK3 mediate the anti‑hyperglycemic effects of proanthocyanidins
- Nahla E. El-Ashmawy
- Eman G. Khedr
- Nehal H. Alfeky
- Amera O. Ibrahim
Affiliations: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Gharbia 31111, Egypt
- Published online on: April 11, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/mi.2022.39
Copyright: © El-Ashmawy
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic metabolic disorder worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of cinnamon bark extract oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) in controlling streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced hyperglycemia and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. For this purpose, 60 male rats were equally divided into six groups as follows: The normal control group; OPC control group (non‑diabetic rats treated with OPC at 300 mg/kg orally for 21 days); the untreated diabetic control group; the wortmannin control group [diabetic rats treated with wortmannin at 1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) on the final day of the experiment]; the OPC diabetic group (diabetic rats treated with OPC at 300 mg/kg orally for 21 days); and the OPC diabetic + wortmannin co‑treated group (diabetic rats treated with OPC at 300 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days and then 24 h after the final OPC dose treated with a single wortmannin injection at 1 mg/kg, i.p.). The results indicated that OPC ameliorated the diabetic state, as evidenced by a significant decrease in serum glucose levels, and a significant increase in the levels of insulin, amylin, insulin receptor phosphorylation, glycogen and glucose transporter‑4 translocation; it also improved the lipid profile in STZ‑diabetic rats. On the whole, the findings of the present study provide biochemical evidence that OPC treatment is effective as an anti‑diabetic and anti‑hyperlipidemic agent by enhancing glucose uptake through the activation of insulin receptor kinase activity and the PI3K/Akt pathway.