Autophagy inhibition enhances isorhamnetin‑induced mitochondria‑dependent apoptosis in non‑small cell lung cancer cells
- Yushu Ruan
- Ke Hu
- Hongbo Chen
Affiliations: Division of Respiratory Disease, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China, The Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene and Antibody Therapy, Division of Life and Health Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School of Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, P.R. China
- Published online on: July 29, 2015 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.4148
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Isorhamnetin (ISO) is a flavonoid from plants of the Polygonaceae family and is also an immediate metabolite of quercetin in mammals. To date, the anti‑tumor effects of ISO and the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in lung cancer cells. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of ISO on the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells. Treatment of the lung cancer cells with ISO significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. ISO treatment also resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic cell death of A549 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that the apoptosis proceeded via the mitochondria‑dependent pathway as indicated by alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome C and caspase activation. Of note, treatment with ISO also induced the formation of autophagosomes and light chain 3‑II protein in A549 cells. Furthermore, co‑treatment with autophagy inhibitors 3‑methyladenine and hydroxychloroquine significantly inhibited the ISO‑induced autophagy and enhanced the ISO‑induced apoptotic cell death in vitro as well as in vivo. Thus, the results of the present study suggested that ISO is a potential anti‑lung cancer agent. In addition, the results indicated that the inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for enhancing the chemotherapeutic effect of ISO on lung cancer cells.