Tissue expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4 and 7 in swine in response to the Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus
- Zhi Cao
- Minping Zheng
- Huifang Lv
- Kangkang Guo
- Yanming Zhang
Affiliations: College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712100, P.R. China
- Published online on: March 14, 2018 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.8734
Copyright: © Cao
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system provide the host with the ability to detect and respond to viral infections. The present study aimed to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, 3, 4 and 7 in porcine tissues upon infection with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of CSFV and TLR, whereas western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of TLR proteins. In addition, tissues underwent histological examination and immunohistochemistry to reveal the histopathological alterations associated with highly virulent CSFV infection and to detect TLR antigens. Furthermore, porcine monocyte‑derived macrophages (pMDMs) were prestimulated with peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus (PGN‑SA), polyinosinic‑polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 055:B5 (LPS‑B5) or imiquimod (R837) in order to analyze the association between TLR expression and CSFV replication. Following stimulation for 12 h (with TLR‑specific ligands), cells were infected with CSFV Shimen strain. The results revealed that the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 were increased in the lung and kidney, but were decreased in the spleen and lymph nodes in response to CSFV. TLR3 was strongly expressed in the heart and slightly upregulated in the spleen in response to CSFV Shimen strain infection, and TLR7 was increased in all examined tissues in the presence of CSFV. Furthermore, R837 and LPS‑B5 exerted inhibitory effects on CSFV replication in pMDMs, whereas PGN‑SA and poly(I:C) had no significant effect. These findings highlight the potential role of TLR expression in the context of CSFV infection.