Open Access

Ginsenoside metabolite 20(S)‑protopanaxadiol promotes neural stem cell transition from a state of proliferation to differentiation by inducing autophagy and cell cycle arrest

  • Authors:
    • Shali Chen
    • Ji He
    • Xiyuan Qin
    • Tiao Luo
    • Aparna Pandey
    • Jijia Li
    • Suyou Liu
    • Junli Luo
    • Qi Wang
    • Zhiyong Luo
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 21, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11081
  • Pages: 353-361
  • Copyright: © Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

20(S)‑Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is an active ginseng metabolite and is the final form of protopanaxadiol saponins metabolized by human intestinal microflora. The neuroprotective effects and mechanisms underlying PPD on neural stem cells (NSCs) are not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of PPD on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. In the present study, following treatment with different concentrations of PPD for 24 h, the percentage of BrdU‑positive cells decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of PPD. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis results indicated that PPD treatment increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phase and decreased the proportion of cells in the S phase. The activation of autophagy, determined by an increased number of autophagic vacuoles and light chain 3 lipidation, was associated with an increase in the expression of the neuronal marker tubulin‑β3 following PPD treatment. PPD also partially rescued NSCs from the inhibitory effects of the autophagic inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that the effect of PPD on NSC differentiation was associated with autophagy. Collectively, the results indicated that PPD promoted the transition of NSCs from a state of proliferation to differentiation through the induction of autophagy and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the present study may provide a basis for the development of regenerative therapies based on ginsenoside, an approved and safe drug.
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July 2020
Volume 22 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

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APA
Chen, S., He, J., Qin, X., Luo, T., Pandey, A., Li, J. ... Luo, Z. (2020). Ginsenoside metabolite 20(S)‑protopanaxadiol promotes neural stem cell transition from a state of proliferation to differentiation by inducing autophagy and cell cycle arrest. Molecular Medicine Reports, 22, 353-361. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11081
MLA
Chen, S., He, J., Qin, X., Luo, T., Pandey, A., Li, J., Liu, S., Luo, J., Wang, Q., Luo, Z."Ginsenoside metabolite 20(S)‑protopanaxadiol promotes neural stem cell transition from a state of proliferation to differentiation by inducing autophagy and cell cycle arrest". Molecular Medicine Reports 22.1 (2020): 353-361.
Chicago
Chen, S., He, J., Qin, X., Luo, T., Pandey, A., Li, J., Liu, S., Luo, J., Wang, Q., Luo, Z."Ginsenoside metabolite 20(S)‑protopanaxadiol promotes neural stem cell transition from a state of proliferation to differentiation by inducing autophagy and cell cycle arrest". Molecular Medicine Reports 22, no. 1 (2020): 353-361. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11081