Different roles of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in osteolysis of skeletal dysplasia and bone metastasis (Review)
- Xiumao Li
- Libin Jin
- Yanbin Tan
Affiliations: Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China
- Published online on: November 20, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11708
Copyright: © Li
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
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Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is a well‑characterized protein that is indispensable for extracellular matrix remodeling and other pathological processes, such as tumor progression and skeletal dysplasia. Excessive activation of MMP2 promotes osteolytic metastasis and bone destruction in late‑stage cancers, while its loss‑of‑function mutations result in the decreased bone mineralization and generalized osteolysis occurring progressively in skeletal developmental disorders, particularly in multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA). Either upregulation or downregulation of MMP2 activity can result in the same osteolytic effects. Thus, different functions of MMP2 have been recently identified that could explain this observation. While MMP2 can degrade bone matrix, facilitate osteoclastogenesis and amplify various signaling pathways that enhance osteolysis in bone metastasis, its role in maintaining the number of bone cells, supporting osteocytic canalicular network formation and suppressing leptin‑mediated inhibition of bone formation has been implicated in osteolytic disorders caused by MMP2 deficiency. Furthermore, the proangiogenic activity of MMP2 is one of the potential mechanisms that are associated with both pathological situations. In the present article, the latest research on MMP2 in bone homeostasis is reviewed and the mechanisms underlying the role of this protein in skeletal metastasis and developmental osteolysis are discussed.