Open Access

Oral peroxidases: From antimicrobial agents to ecological actors (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Philippe Courtois
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  • Published online on: May 6, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12139
  • Article Number: 500
  • Copyright: © Courtois et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Sialoperoxidase and myeloperoxidase are the two main peroxidase enzymes found in the oral cavity. Sialoperoxidase is present in salivary secretions and in the biofilms that line the oral surfaces, while myeloperoxidase is abundant in the dento‑gingival sulcus area. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), oral peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of the pseudohalide anion thiocyanate (SCN) to hypothiocyanite (OSCN), a strong oxidant that serves an antimicrobial role. Furthermore, oral peroxidases consume bacteria‑produced H2O2 and could help inactivate toxic carcinogenic and genotoxic substances. Numerous in vitro studies have reported the antibacterial, antimycotic and antiviral role of peroxidases, suggesting possible applications in oral therapy. However, the use of oral hygiene products incorporating peroxidase systems has not yet been shown to be beneficial for the treatment or prevention of oral infections. This paradox reflects our incomplete knowledge of the physiological role of peroxidases in a complex environment, such as the oral region. While hygiene is crucial for restoring oral microbiota to a symbiotic state, there are no data to suggest that the addition of a peroxidase per se can create a dysbiotic state. Recent investigations have associated the presence of peroxidase activity with gram‑positive cocci microbial flora, and its insufficiency with dysbiosis has been linked to pathologies, such as caries, periodontitis or infections of the oral mucosa. Therefore, oxidants generated by oral peroxidases appear to be an essential ecological determinant for oral health through the selection of a symbiotic microbiota capable of resisting oxidative stress. The objective of the present review was to update the current knowledge of the physiological aspects and applications of oral peroxidases in clinical practice.
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July-2021
Volume 24 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

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Spandidos Publications style
Courtois P: Oral peroxidases: From antimicrobial agents to ecological actors (Review). Mol Med Rep 24: 500, 2021
APA
Courtois, P. (2021). Oral peroxidases: From antimicrobial agents to ecological actors (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports, 24, 500. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12139
MLA
Courtois, P."Oral peroxidases: From antimicrobial agents to ecological actors (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 24.1 (2021): 500.
Chicago
Courtois, P."Oral peroxidases: From antimicrobial agents to ecological actors (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 24, no. 1 (2021): 500. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12139