Effect of N‑terminal region of human parvovirus B19‑VP1 unique region on cardiac injury in naïve mice
- Kuo-Chuan Hung
- Zi-Yun Huang
- Jia Le Yow
- Tsai-Ching Hsu
- Bor-Show Tzang
Affiliations: Department of Anesthesiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan, Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
- Published online on: September 2, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12399
Copyright: © Hung
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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A unique region of human parvovirus B19 virus‑VP1 (B19V‑VP1u) has been linked to a variety of cardiac disorders. However, the precise role of B19V‑VP1u in inducing cardiac injury remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of B19V‑VP1u and different regions of B19V‑VP1u, including B19V‑VP1uA (residues 1‑60), B19V‑VP1uB (residues 61‑129), B19V‑VP1uC (residues 130‑195) and B19V‑VP1uD (residues 196‑227), on inducing cardiac injury in naïve mice by zymography, immunoblotting, H&E staining and cytokine immunoassay. A significantly higher MMP‑9/MMP‑2 ratio and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, were detected in the left ventricles of the mice injected with B19V‑non‑structural protein 1 (B19V‑NS1) and B19V‑VP1u, accompanied by increased expression levels of phosphorylated (p‑)ERK and p‑P38. Significantly upregulated expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), heart‑type fatty acid‑binding protein (H‑FABP) and creatine kinase isoenzyme‑MB (CK‑MB), which are well‑known cardiac injury markers, as well as increased infiltration of lymphocytes, were detected in the left ventricles of the mice injected with B19V‑VP1, B19V‑NS1 and B19V‑VP1u. Moreover, a significantly higher MMP‑9/MMP‑2 ratio and increased levels of IL‑6 and IL‑1β were observed in the left ventricles of the mice injected with B19V‑VP1u, B19V‑VP1u‑A, B19V‑VP1u‑B and B19V‑VP1u‑C, accompanied by upregulated p‑ERK and p‑P38 expression. Notably, significantly lower levels of IL‑6 and IL‑1β were observed in the left ventricles of the mice injected with B19V‑VP1uD. Furthermore, significantly increased ANP, H‑FABP and CK‑MB expression levels were detected in the left ventricles of the mice injected with B19V‑VP1u, B19V‑VP1u‑A and B19V‑VP1u‑B, along with enhanced infiltration of lymphocytes. Significantly higher serum IL‑1β, IL‑6, TNF‑α and IFN‑γ levels were also detected in the mice injected with B19V‑VP1u, B19V‑VP1u‑A and B19V‑VP1u‑B. To the best of our knowledge, the findings of the present study were the first to demonstrate that the N‑terminal region (residues 1‑129) of B19V‑VP1u induces an increase in the levels of cardiac injury markers, thus providing evidence for understanding the possible functional regions within B19V‑VP1u.