Open Access

Possibility of exosome‑based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Kwang Ho Yoo
    • Nikita Thapa
    • Beom Joon Kim
    • Jung Ok Lee
    • You Na Jang
    • Yong Joon Chwae
    • Jaeyoung Kim
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 23, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12542
  • Article Number: 26
  • Copyright: © Yoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) is a global pandemic that can have a long‑lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long‑lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID‑19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long‑term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo‑loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID‑19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome‑based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS‑CoV‑2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long‑lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID‑19 vaccines; moreover, exosome‑based vaccines may be key to control the COVID‑19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.

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January-2022
Volume 25 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

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Copy and paste a formatted citation
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Spandidos Publications style
Yoo KH, Thapa N, Kim BJ, Lee JO, Jang YN, Chwae YJ and Kim J: Possibility of exosome‑based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine (Review). Mol Med Rep 25: 26, 2022
APA
Yoo, K.H., Thapa, N., Kim, B.J., Lee, J.O., Jang, Y.N., Chwae, Y.J., & Kim, J. (2022). Possibility of exosome‑based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports, 25, 26. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12542
MLA
Yoo, K. H., Thapa, N., Kim, B. J., Lee, J. O., Jang, Y. N., Chwae, Y. J., Kim, J."Possibility of exosome‑based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 25.1 (2022): 26.
Chicago
Yoo, K. H., Thapa, N., Kim, B. J., Lee, J. O., Jang, Y. N., Chwae, Y. J., Kim, J."Possibility of exosome‑based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 25, no. 1 (2022): 26. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12542