Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report
- Lennart Hardell
- Michael Carlberg
- Lena K. Hedendahl
Affiliations: Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE‑701 82 Örebro, Sweden, The Environment and Cancer Research Foundation, SE‑702 17 Örebro, Sweden
- Published online on: March 16, 2018 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.8285
Copyright: © Hardell
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non‑ionizing radiation. These non‑thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2‑112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down‑links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non‑thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long‑term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.