Total flavonoids suppress lung cancer growth via the COX‑2‑mediated Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway
- Lei Han
- Shu Fang
- Guangtao Li
- Minghuan Wang
- Renzhi Yu
Affiliations: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Mudanjiang Medical University Affiliated Hongqi Hospital, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157000, P.R. China, Community Health Service Center, Mudanjiang Medical University Affiliated Hongqi Hospital, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157000, P.R. China, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kangan Hospital, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157000, P.R. China
- Published online on: January 9, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11271
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The aim of the present study was to explore the anti‑cancer effects of total flavonoids (TF) on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The inhibitory effect of TF on the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro was measured using an MTT assay. The apoptotic rate of TF‑treated A549 cells was analyzed using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling. Migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the anti‑migration effect of TF on A549 cells. Reverse‑transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze BCL2‑like 2, BCL2, Bax, Bad, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‑2), Wnt and β‑catenin mRNA expression levels in A549 cells. The in vivo anti‑cancer effect of TF was investigated in a subcutaneous xenograft model of lung cancer in BALB/c nude mice. The results obtained in the present study revealed that TF exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose‑dependent manner (P<0.01). TF induced apoptosis of A549 cells, which exhibited increased and decreased expression of pro‑ and anti‑ apoptotic genes, respectively. Furthermore, TF had a significant inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of A549 cells (P<0.01). The mRNA expression levels of COX‑2, Wnt and β‑catenin were significantly downregulated in TF‑treated A549 cells compared with controls. Additionally, treatment with TF inhibited tumor growth in mice, with a tumor inhibition rate of 64.07% compared with the controls. TF exhibited significant tumor inhibitory effects in vivo by promoting the apoptosis of tumor cells. In conclusion, the results suggested that TF may regulate lung cancer growth via the COX‑2‑Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. TF may serve as a novel anti‑cancer agent for the treatment of lung cancer.