Elevated XRCC5 expression level can promote temozolomide resistance and predict poor prognosis in glioblastoma
- I-Neng Lee
- Jen-Tsung Yang
- Cheng Huang
- Hsiu-Chen Huang
- Yu-Ping Wu
- Jui-Chieh Chen
Affiliations: Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 61363, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang‑Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Applied Science, National Tsing Hua University South Campus, Hsinchu 30014, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan, R.O.C.
- Published online on: April 6, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12704
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Drug resistance and disease recurrence are important contributors for the poor prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemotherapy for GBM treatment, can methylate DNA and cause the formation of double‑strand breaks (DSBs). X‑ray repair cross complementing 5 (XRCC5), also known as Ku80 or Ku86, is required for the repair of DSBs. The present study identified novel determinants that sensitize cells to TMZ, using an array‑based short hairpin (sh)RNA library. Then, cBioportal, Oncomine, and R2 databases were used to analyze the association between gene expression levels and clinical characteristics. Subsequently, lentiviral shRNA or pCMV was used to knockdown or overexpress the gene of interest, and the effects on TMZ sensitivity were determined using a MTT assay and western blot analysis. TMZ‑resistant cells were also established and were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments to analyze the role of the gene of interest in TMZ resistance. The results indicated that XRCC5 was effective in enhancing TMZ cytotoxicity. The results from the bioinformatics analysis revealed that XRCC5 mRNA expression levels were associated with clinical deterioration and lower overall survival rates. In addition, XRCC5 knockdown could significantly increase TMZ sensitivity in GBM cells, while XRCC5 overexpression caused the cancer cells to be resistant to TMZ. Both the in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that TMZ treatment could induce expression of XRCC5 in TMZ‑resistant cells. Taken together these ﬁndings suggested that XRCC5 could be a promising target for GBM treatment and could also be used as a diagnostic marker for refractory GBM.