Perphenazine and prochlorperazine decrease glioblastoma U‑87 MG cell migration and invasion: Analysis of the ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters, E‑cadherin, α‑tubulin and integrins (α3, α5, and β1) levels
- Michał Otręba
- Jerzy Stojko
- Agata Kabała‑Dzik
- Anna Rzepecka‑Stojko
Affiliations: Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41‑200 Sosnowiec, Poland, Department of Toxicology and Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41‑200 Sosnowiec, Poland, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41‑200 Sosnowiec, Poland
- Published online on: April 15, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13302
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Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent type of malignant brain tumor, and is one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors with a very poor survival rate. Therefore, novel and effective strategies of treatment are required. Integrins play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular adhesion and invasion. Integrins and α‑tubulin are very important in cell migration, whereas E‑cadherin plays a main role in tumor metastasis. Notably, drugs serve a crucial role in glioblastoma treatment; however, they have to penetrate the blood‑brain barrier (BBB) to be effective. ABC transporters, including ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), are localized in the brain endothelial capillaries of the BBB, have a crucial role in the development of multidrug resistance and are modulated by phenothiazine derivatives. The impact of perphenazine and prochlorperazine on the motility of human Uppsala 87 malignant glioma (U87‑MG) cells was evaluated using a wound‑healing assay, cellular migration and invasion were assessed by Transwell assay, and the protein expression levels of ABCB1, ABCG2, E‑cadherin, α‑tubulin and integrins were determined by western blotting. The present study explored the effects of perphenazine and prochlorperazine on the levels of ABCB1, ABCG2, E‑cadherin, α‑tubulin and integrins (α3, α5, and β1), as well as on the migratory and invasive ability of U87‑MG cells. The results suggested that perphenazine and prochlorperazine may modulate the expression levels of multidrug resistance proteins (they decreased ABCB1 and increased ABCG2 expression), E‑cadherin, α‑tubulin and integrins, and could impair the migration and invasion of U‑87 MG cells. In conclusion, the decrease in migratory and invasive ability following treatment with phenothiazine derivatives due to the increase in ABCG2 and E‑cadherin expression, and decrease in α‑tubulin and integrins expression, may suggest that research on perphenazine and prochlorperazine in the treatment of glioblastoma is worth continuing.