Chemoprevention of breast cancer by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors
- Randall E. Harris
- Joanne Beebe
- Judith Schwartzbaum
Affiliations: The Ohio State University Colleges of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
- Published online on: January 30, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2020.34
Copyright: © Harris
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
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Numerous epidemiological and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that non‑steroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert chemopreventive effects against breast cancer due to their activity against cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme that responds to tissue damage by producing inflammatory prostaglandins. Recent laboratory and animal investigations have suggested that a second group of anti‑inflammatory compounds, those that inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX)‑catalyzed products of the leukotriene cascade, may also have potential for breast cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Therefore, in this study, a case‑control investigation was conducted to examine the independent and combined effects of COX and LOX inhibitors in the prevention of breast cancer. A total of 611 incident breast cancer patients were identified and they were compared to 615 cancer‑free controls, group‑matched to the cases on age, race and county of residence. Data on the past and current use of medications and breast cancer risk factors were ascertained using medical records and a risk factor questionnaire. The results revealed risk reductions for COX (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.27‑0.54) and LOX inhibitors (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0l.32‑0.82). Notably, their combined use produced the greatest risk reduction (OR, 0.26; 95% CI=0.11‑0.65). On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that combinations of compounds with independent effects against COX and LOX have a stronger potential to prevent breast cancer than do the individual compounds.