Gluten‑hydrolyzing probiotics: An emerging therapy for patients with celiac disease (Review)
- Devaraja Gayathri
- Alurappa Ramesha
Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Davangere University, Davangere, Karnataka 577007, India
- Published online on: June 19, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2020.55
Copyright: © Gayathri
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
Celiac disease (CD), also known as gluten‑sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by variable malabsorption syndrome with characteristics, such as chronic diarrhea, weight loss and abdominal distention. Possible therapies for CD include dietary and non‑dietary strategies; the latter include permeability inhibition and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) blockage using chemotherapeutic drugs. Dietary strategies for the management of CD include a gluten‑reduced diet, and the supplementation of probiotics and their products. The gluten‑reduced diet is not always sustainable due to the availability of gluten‑free nutritional commodities. In this context, probiotics are live microorganisms and their products are supplemented to the patients in order to improve their overall well‑being. The effects of probiotics on gut health varies from species to species, and it is dependent on environmental factors and other commensals present in the gut. The ameliorating effects of probiotics include the detoxification of gluten peptides, the strengthening of the intestinal epithelial barrier and the degradation of toxin receptors, adhesion to intestinal mucosa, the competitive exclusion of pathogens, the production of inhibitory substances against pathogens, and the regulation of immunity and attenuation of the inflammation associated with a Toll‑like receptor through immunomodulation. These observations suggest that a combination of specific gut microbiota and probiotics may prove to be beneficial for patients with CD. In this context, the present review focuses on the prevalence and implications of the disease, as well as the mechanisms of the effects of probiotics, which may aid in the development of natural food adjuncts for individuals prone to or with CD.