Fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells
Affiliations: Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan
- Published online on: July 1, 2006 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.18.1.147
- Pages: 147-152
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Fucoxanthin is a major carotenoid found in edible seaweed such as Undaria pinnatifida and Hijikia fusiformis. We investigated the suppressive effects of fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. Fucoxanthin inhibited intercellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, fucoxanthin was converted to fucoxanthinol in 3T3-L1 cells. Fucoxanthinol also exhibited suppressive effects on lipid accumulation and decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of adipocyte differentiation. The suppressive effect of fucoxanthinol was stronger than that of fucoxanthin. In addition, in 3T3-L1 cells treated with fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which regulates adipogenic gene expression, was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol inhibit the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells through down-regulation of PPARγ. Fucoxanthinol had stronger suppressive effects than fucoxanthin on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.