Hesperidin induces apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells
- Rongmu Xia
- Xin Sheng
- Xianlin Xu
- Chunbo Yu
- Hongling Lu
Published online on: November 9, 2017
Lung cancer has high incidence and mortality rates worldwide. In the present study, the mechanisms by which hesperidin decreases the viability and induces the apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells were investigated. Initially, MTT and flow cytometric assays were performed to evaluate the effects of hesperidin on the viability and apoptosis of A549 cells and human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The results revealed that hesperidin has no negative effects on the human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and the viability of cells treated with various concentrations of hesperidin was inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner compared with the control groups. Subsequently, the expression levels of proteins involved in the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway were studied by western blot analysis. Hesperidin was identified to induce A549 cell apoptosis by downregulating the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl extra large protein and simultaneously upregulating the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein, BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid), tBid, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose)polymerase. The effect of hesperidin on the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Hesperidin was observed to cause G0/G1 arrest of A549 cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and increasing the expression of p21 and p53. In summary, it was demonstrated that hesperidin induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and induced G0/G1 arrest in human NSCLC A549 cells. Therefore, hesperidin may be developed as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of NSCLC.