Apoptotic activity of 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of ionizing α-particle radiation
- Richard Ponce-Cusi
- Gloria M. Calaf
Published online on: December 18, 2015
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Globally, breast cancer in women is the leading cause of cancer death. This fact has generated an interest to obtain insight into breast tumorigenesis and also to develop drugs to control the disease. Ras is a proto-oncogene that is activated as a response to extracellular signals. As a member of the Ras GTPase superfamily, Rho-A is an oncogenic and a critical component of signaling pathways leading to downstream gene regulation. In chemotherapy, apoptosis is the predominant mechanism by which cancer cells die. However, even when the apoptotic machinery remains intact, survival signaling may antagonize the cell death by signals. The aim of this study was to evaluate 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cells transformed by low doses of ionizing α-particle radiation, in breast cancer cell lines on these genes, as well as apoptotic activity. We used two cell lines from an in vitro experimental breast cancer model. The MCF-10F and Tumor2 cell lines. MCF-10F was exposed to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) α-particles radiation (150 keV/µm). Tumor2, is a malignant and tumorigenic cell line obtained from Alpha5 (60cGy+E/60cGy+E) injected into the nude mice. Results indicated that 5-FU decreased H-ras, Rho-A, p53, Stat1 and increased Bax gene expression in Tumor2 and decreased Rac1, Rho-A, NF-κB and increased Bax and caspase-3 protein expression in Tumor2. 5-FU decreased H-ras, Bcl-xL and NF-κB and increased Bax gene expression. 5-FU decreased Rac1, Rho-A protein expression and increased Bax and caspase-3 protein expression in MDA-MB-231. Flow cytometry indicated 21.5% of cell death in the control MCF-10F and 80% in Tumor2 cell lines. It can be concluded that 5-FU may exert apoptotic activity in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of ionizing α-particles in vitro regulating genes of Ras family and related to apoptosis such as Bax, Bcl-xL and NF-κB expression.