Ferruginol exhibits anticancer effects in OVCAR‑3 human ovary cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell migration and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest
- Wen‑Dong Xiong
- Jian Gong
- Chao Xing
Published online on: September 13, 2017
The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor effects of ferruginol in OVCAR‑3 human ovary cancer cells. The effects of ferruginol on cell apoptosis, cell migration and cell cycle phase distribution were also evaluated. Cell cytotoxicity induced by ferruginol was determined by an MTT assay, while fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to investigate apoptotic effects. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the effects of ferruginol on the cell cycle and an in vitro wound healing assay was performed to investigate effects on cancer cell migration. The results indicated that ferruginol inhibited the growth rate of OVACR‑3 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. When cells were treated with 20, 80 and 300 µM ferruginol, cells began to exhibit yellow fluorescence, which indicated the onset of apoptosis. TEM results demonstrated that untreated control cells exhibited intact nuclei and nucleolus. However, on treating cells with various doses of ferruginol, chromatin condensation occurred and disappearance of the nuclear envelope and formation of apoptotic bodies were also observed. The percentage of migrated cells, determined by the wound healing assay, decreased from 98.7% in control to 68.2% and 45.3 in 80 and 300 µM ferruginol‑treated cells, respectively. Flow cytometry results demonstrated that ferruginol induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in OVCAR‑3 cells. In conclusion, ferruginol may exhibit anticancer effects in OVCAR‑3 human ovary cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting cancer cell migration and inducing G2/M cell and may therefore prove beneficial in the treatment and management of ovarian cancer.