Open Access

ERK/MAPK signalling pathway and tumorigenesis (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Yan‑Jun Guo
    • Wei‑Wei Pan
    • Sheng‑Bing Liu
    • Zhong‑Fei Shen
    • Ying Xu
    • Ling‑Ling Hu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: January 15, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8454
  • Pages: 1997-2007
  • Copyright: © Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are key signalling pathways that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and stress responses. The MAPK pathway includes three main kinases, MAPK kinase kinase, MAPK kinase and MAPK, which activate and phosphorylate downstream proteins. The extracellular signal‑regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine‑threonine kinases that regulate cellular signalling under both normal and pathological conditions. ERK expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation plays a major role in cancer development and progression. The Ras/Raf/MAPK (MEK)/ERK pathway is the most important signalling cascade among all MAPK signal transduction pathways, and plays a crucial role in the survival and development of tumour cells. The present review discusses recent studies on Ras and ERK pathway members. With respect to processes downstream of ERK activation, the role of ERK in tumour proliferation, invasion and metastasis is highlighted, and the role of the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway in tumour extracellular matrix degradation and tumour angiogenesis is emphasised.

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March 2020
Volume 19 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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APA
Guo, Y., Pan, W., Liu, S., Shen, Z., Xu, Y., & Hu, L. (2020). ERK/MAPK signalling pathway and tumorigenesis (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 19, 1997-2007. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8454
MLA
Guo, Y., Pan, W., Liu, S., Shen, Z., Xu, Y., Hu, L."ERK/MAPK signalling pathway and tumorigenesis (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 19.3 (2020): 1997-2007.
Chicago
Guo, Y., Pan, W., Liu, S., Shen, Z., Xu, Y., Hu, L."ERK/MAPK signalling pathway and tumorigenesis (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 19, no. 3 (2020): 1997-2007. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8454