Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of GLP‑1 agonists, besides the hypoglycemic effect (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Roua Anamaria Iorga
    • Nicolae Bacalbasa
    • Mara Carsote
    • Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu
    • Ana Maria Alexandra Stanescu
    • Simona Bungau
    • Carmen Pantis
    • Camelia Cristina Diaconu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 5, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8714
  • Pages: 2396-2400
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Abstract

Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher cardiovascular risk than normal individuals. Optimal blood glucose levels are rarely achieved in diabetic patients. Glucagon‑like peptide‑1 receptor agonists (GLP‑1 RAs) have emerged as a new antidiabetic drug class with multiple metabolic effects. Some trials have evaluated their safety, but it has been recently demonstrated that this new class has cardiovascular benefits, through other mechanisms than glycemic control. The use of GLP‑1RAs was associated with a significant reduction of cardiovascular and all‑cause mortality, with a safe profile related to pancreatitis or thyroid cancer, as compared with placebo. This review presents the cardiovascular and metabolic benefits of GLP‑1 RAs versus placebo, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Semaglutide and liraglutide demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular events, with similar rates on cardiovascular mortality. Ongoing trials assess the cardiovascular benefits and side effects of dulaglutide treatment. Exenatide and liraglutide demonstrated the decrease of blood pressure values, weight reduction and improvement of dyslipidemia. Liraglutide induced, both in vivo and in vitro, an improvement of blood circulation, increasing the nitric oxide level and inhibiting the adhesion and procoagulant factors. Also, liraglutide demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, but more large trials are required. However, the international guidelines recommend using GLP‑1 RAs as first‑line therapy in type 2 diabetes patients with high cardiovascular risk or as first‑line agents in patients intolerant to metformin.

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September-2020
Volume 20 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

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Spandidos Publications style
Iorga RA, Bacalbasa N, Carsote M, Bratu OG, Stanescu AA, Bungau S, Pantis C and Diaconu CC: Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of GLP‑1 agonists, besides the hypoglycemic effect (Review). Exp Ther Med 20: 2396-2400, 2020
APA
Iorga, R.A., Bacalbasa, N., Carsote, M., Bratu, O.G., Stanescu, A.A., Bungau, S. ... Diaconu, C.C. (2020). Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of GLP‑1 agonists, besides the hypoglycemic effect (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 20, 2396-2400. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8714
MLA
Iorga, R. A., Bacalbasa, N., Carsote, M., Bratu, O. G., Stanescu, A. A., Bungau, S., Pantis, C., Diaconu, C. C."Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of GLP‑1 agonists, besides the hypoglycemic effect (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 20.3 (2020): 2396-2400.
Chicago
Iorga, R. A., Bacalbasa, N., Carsote, M., Bratu, O. G., Stanescu, A. A., Bungau, S., Pantis, C., Diaconu, C. C."Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of GLP‑1 agonists, besides the hypoglycemic effect (Review)". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 20, no. 3 (2020): 2396-2400. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8714