Changes in peri‑ocular anatomy and physiology in pseudoexfoliation syndrome (Review)
- Efstathios T. Detorakis
- Georgios Bontzos
- Eleni E. Drakonaki
- Demetrios A. Spandidos
Affiliations: Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion 71110, Greece, Department of Ophthalmology, Red Cross Hospital, Athens 11526, Greece, Department of Anatomy, Medical School, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1516, Cyprus, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece
- Published online on: April 19, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10082
Copyright: © Detorakis
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is characterized by the deposition of proteinaceous material in the anterior ocular segment (resulting in ophthalmic pathologies such as glaucoma and increased risk of complications in cataract surgery), but also by several systemic manifestations. The involvement of peri‑ocular tissues in PEX, including the eyelid skin, lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, orbital fat and vessels, as well as the optic nerve, has been reported by several previous studies. The peri‑ocular effects of PEX include the development of eyelid laxity, conjunctival chalasis, tear film abnormalities, pronounced orbital fat atrophy in response to the administration of prostaglandin analogues in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, deficient orbital vascular supply and biomechanical changes in both the eyeball and the optic nerve. These effects may have important clinical implications, including increased difficulty in cataract surgery, ocular surface disease and eyelid margin malpositions.