Effects of endurance exercise on serum inflammatory cytokine level and kidney structure in a rat diabetes model
- Sen Lin
- Shanhu Jin
- Fenglin Zhou
- Yazhe Hu
- Ming Zhang
Affiliations: Department of Sport Science, School of Physical Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, P.R. China, Department of Sport Science, School of Physical Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, P.R. China
- Published online on: August 5, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10559
Copyright: © Lin
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Diabete mellitus (DM) is becoming a global health problem. Whilst many studies have previously focused on the therapeutic effects of exercise on diabetes, insufficient data exist on its effectiveness on disease prevention. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of endurance exercises on kidney injury and on the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1. Type 2 diabetic rat model was created followng 8 weeks of feeding on high fat diet, followed by injection with streptozotocin (STZ; 30 mg/kg). A total of three different intensity endurance exercises, including low‑intensity exercise (8 m/min and 0˚ slope), moderate‑intensity exercise (15 m/min and 5˚ slope) and high‑intensity exercise (20 m/min and 10˚ slope), were arranged during this process. Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance tests (OSTT) were performed in all rats 1 week after STZ injection. Serum interleukin‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α levels were measured using ELISA. After OGTT, all rats were sacrificed and kidney samples were removed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and western blot analyzes. Urea and ureatinine levels, representative of renal function, were estimated by using automatic biochemical analyzer. Rats in the DM group showed severe impaired glucose tolerance, which was alleviated in the moderate‑intensity exercise (ME) and the high‑intensity exercise (HE) groups. Inflammatory cytokines were also significantly reduced rats in the ME group compared with those in the DM group. No difference in renal function, MMP‑9/TIMP‑1 and TGF‑β1 expression was observed. In addition, rats in the DM group exhibited glomerular enlargement with structural renal abnormalities, whilst those in the ME and HE groups showed improved symptoms. To conclude, no increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and renal fibrotic proteins could be observed in the present rat model of type‑2 DM, but evident structural abnormalities can be observed in the kidneys. Medium‑intensity endurance exercise can reduce serum inflammatory cytokine levels and prevent aberrant changes in renal structures.