A notable behavioural feature of X‑linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is extensive structural schisis (splitting) of the outer plexiform and inner nuclear layers of the neurosensory retina, which is partly combined with complications related to vitreous hemorrhage, macular holes and retinal detachment. The present study aimed to identify the pathogenic gene mutation in a three‑generation Chinese family with XLRS by whole‑exome sequencing (WES). The clinical information of a three‑generation Chinese family with cases of XLRS was collected. WES was performed for the proband. A comparison with the human reference genome sequence (hg38) and bioinformatic analysis were performed to reveal putative variants and Sanger sequencing was applied to verify mutations in this family and healthy control participants. Intraretinal cystic spaces were detected by optical coherence tomography imaging. Structures of the wild‑type and mutant retinoschisin 1 (RS1) protein were modelled by PyMol. Almost all patients had a history of vision loss and abnormal blue‑purple colour vision; however, the phenotypes of the 4 patients were distinctly different. There was no linear correlation between phenotypic severity and age. A recurrent RS1 (Xp22.2) mutation (NM_000330: c.559C>T) was detected, resulting in the p.Q187X variant. According to the protein model, this variant is likely pathogenic. The present study was the first to report that RS1:c.559C>T induces XLRS in a three‑generation Chinese pedigree, with the mutation leading to premature termination of translation of the RS1 protein. WES was able to diagnose XLRS, which has the characteristics of clinical and genetic heterogeneity.
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