LPS‑induced inflammatory response and apoptosis are mediated by Fra‑1 upregulation and binding to YKL‑40 in A549 cells
- Fei Wang
- Wenxuan Li
- Zhen Liu
- Ronghua Yu
- Dalian Wang
Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. China, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200062, P.R. China
- Published online on: October 22, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10909
Copyright: © Wang
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a multifactorial syndrome that leads to increased morbidity and mortality in infants and children. The identification of novel biomarkers is critical for the treatment of ARDS. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chitinase‑3‑like‑1 protein (CHI3L1 or YKL‑40) in an in vitro model of ARDS and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The in vitro model of ARDS was established in A549 alveolar epithelial type II cells, which were treated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Transfection was performed to alter YKL‑40 expression. The mRNA and protein expression of YKL‑40 was determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Cell Counting Kit‑8 and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. The production of cytokines was evaluated using specific ELISA kits. The relationship between YKL‑40 and Fos‑related antigen 1 (Fra‑1) was verified using luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of the apoptotic proteins was detected using western blotting. The expression levels of YKL‑40 and Fra‑1 were increased in LPS‑treated A549 cells. Higher levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and induction of cell apoptosis were observed in LPS‑treated A549 cells compared with the control. YKL‑40 knockdown in LPS‑treated A549 cells significantly decreased the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and reduced cell apoptosis, whereas it concomitantly caused upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl‑2, cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved caspase‑9. In addition, Fra‑1 could directly bind to YKL‑40 promoter and regulate its expression level. Overexpression of YKL‑40 partly decreased the inhibitory effects of Fra‑1 knockdown on the inflammatory response and induction of apoptosis. In summary, the findings from the present study indicated that Fra‑1 could bind to YKL‑40 and regulate its expression, whereas YKL‑40 knockdown could further suppress LPS‑induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in A549 cells. These data may provide novel evidence on the diagnosis and therapy of ARDS.