Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with pulmonary embolism: A study on pediatric cases in Jilin province of China
- Chu-Qiao Sheng
- Chun-Feng Yang
- Yu Ao
- Zhi-Yue Zhao
- Yu-Mei Li
Affiliations: Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China
- Published online on: January 11, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9634
Copyright: © Sheng
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Mycoplasma is one of the most common pathogens causing community‑acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients. In recent years, the number of refractory or severe cases with drug resistance has been gradually increasing and cases that developed embolism after Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection have been reported. The present study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) combined with pulmonary embolism (PE) in a series of 7 cases encountered between January 1st, 2016 to August 1st, 2019 at the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of The First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China). Combined with relevant Chinese and international studies published during the last two decades, a comprehensive analysis was performed. All of the pediatric patients of the present study had fever, cough and dyspnea respiratory symptoms at onset and the disease progressed rapidly. Thereafter, PE was confirmed by a series of examinations. Pulmonary CT indicated patchy inflammations and significantly elevated D‑dimer levels, accompanied by positive anticardiolipin antibodies. Furthermore, a filling defect in the pulmonary artery branch was observed on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examination. In 2 cases, the condition was improved with anti‑infection and anticoagulation treatment with low‑molecular‑weight heparin and warfarin, respectively, and the pulmonary embolism disappeared after 3‑4 months. A total of 5 cases, who were not responsive to the drug treatment, underwent surgical resection. During the operation, the local tissues were determined to be infarcted and the pathological diagnosis was consistent with pulmonary infarction. Among the 5 cases, 2 died of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome at 3‑8 days after the operation. The remaining patients underwent 6‑12 months of follow‑up and respiratory rehabilitation and their quality of life is now good. In conclusion, compared with healthy individuals, pediatric patients with critical MPP have an elevated risk of embolism. It is necessary to be vigilant regarding whether MMP is combined with PE and perform timely CTPA examination. Early detection, early treatment and surgical intervention (if necessary) may significantly reduce the risk of mortality and disability.