Open Access

Combination of Sophora flavescens alkaloids and Panax quinquefolium saponins modulates different stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via the NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathways

  • Authors:
    • Menghui Liu
    • Yue Lin
    • Huibo Xu
    • Lixin Li
    • Tao Ding
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: July 14, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11507
  • Article Number: 570
  • Copyright: © Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Chronic cardiac inflammation and fibrosis can progress into severe forms of cardiomyopathy. Sophora flavescens alkaloids (KuShen) have been previously reported to exert anti‑inflammatory effects, whereas Panax quinquefolium saponins (XiYangShen) has been shown to alleviate cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, the potential effects of their combination (KX) on different stages of autoimmune myocarditis were investigated in the present study. Mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: Control; experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM); KX‑High (275 mg/kg); and KX‑Low (138 mg/kg). A 21‑day and a 60‑day EAM model was established through multi‑site subcutaneous injections of cardiac myosin mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant on days 0, 7, 21 and 42. Mice in the High and Low KX groups were treated by gavage (10 ml/kg) daily from day 0 (1 day before treatment) until sacrifice (day 21 or 60). Mice in the control and EAM groups received an equivalent volume of distilled water. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase‑myocardial band (CK‑MB), cardiac troponin I (cTn‑I), IL‑1β, IL‑6, TNF‑α, TGF‑β1, collagen type I (Col Ⅰ) and collagen type III (Col Ⅲ) were measured by ELISA in the mouse myocardial tissues or serum. Myocardial tissue structure and extent of fibrosis were visualized using H&E and Masson's staining. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression levels NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathway proteins in the myocardial tissues. The degree of inflammation in the 21‑day EAM model was found to be significantly higher compared with that in the 60‑day EAM model. KX significantly reduced the inflammatory response at 21 days by decreasing the expression levels of CK‑MB, LDH, cTn‑I, IL‑1β, IL‑6, TNF‑α and TGF‑β‑activated kinase 1‑binding protein 1/NF‑κB pathway proteins. Myocardial fibrosis in the 60‑day EAM model was also significantly worse compared with that in the 21‑day EAM model. However, fibrosis was significantly delayed by treatment with KX. In addition, KX significantly decreased the expression levels of TGF‑β1, Smad2, Smad4, Col I and Col III. Therefore, these data suggest that KX is beneficial for treating myocarditis by targeting multiple pathways.

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September-2022
Volume 24 Issue 3

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Spandidos Publications style
Liu M, Lin Y, Xu H, Li L and Ding T: Combination of <em>Sophora flavescens</em> alkaloids and Panax quinquefolium saponins modulates different stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via the NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathways. Exp Ther Med 24: 570, 2022
APA
Liu, M., Lin, Y., Xu, H., Li, L., & Ding, T. (2022). Combination of <em>Sophora flavescens</em> alkaloids and Panax quinquefolium saponins modulates different stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via the NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathways. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 24, 570. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11507
MLA
Liu, M., Lin, Y., Xu, H., Li, L., Ding, T."Combination of <em>Sophora flavescens</em> alkaloids and Panax quinquefolium saponins modulates different stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via the NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathways". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24.3 (2022): 570.
Chicago
Liu, M., Lin, Y., Xu, H., Li, L., Ding, T."Combination of <em>Sophora flavescens</em> alkaloids and Panax quinquefolium saponins modulates different stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via the NF‑κB and TGF‑β1 pathways". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 24, no. 3 (2022): 570. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11507