Cardioprotection by exenatide: A novel mechanism via improving mitochondrial function involving the GLP-1 receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway

  • Authors:
    • Guanglei Chang
    • Jian Liu
    • Shu Qin
    • Youqin Jiang
    • Peng Zhang
    • Hui Yu
    • Kai Lu
    • Nan Zhang
    • Li Cao
    • Ying Wang
    • Yong Li
    • Dongying Zhang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: December 12, 2017     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3318
  • Pages: 1693-1703
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Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogues exert cardioprotective effects via modulating cardiomyocyte metabolism. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell metabolism. It was hypothesized that treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue, may exert cardioprotective effects by improving mitochondrial function in an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). H9c2 cells were employed to establish an in vitro model of H/R. Exenatide was added to the cells for 30 min prior to exposure to hypoxia. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin‑(9‑39), the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS and the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 were added to the cells for 10 min prior to treatment with exenatide. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated. The characteristics of mitochondrial morphology and functions, including ATP synthesis, membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), mitochondrial ATPase activity and oxidative stress, were determined. the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (Nrf-1) were also investigated by western blot analysis. Exenatide pretreatment significantly decreased LDH and CK-MB release and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. More importantly, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of exenatide pretreatment decreasing mitochondrial abnormalities and reducing oxidative stress, while enhancing ATP synthesis, mitochondrial ATPase activity and ΔΨm in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. Exenatide pretreatment also decreased mitochondrial calcium overload and inhibited the opening of mPTP in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. Furthermore, exenatide pretreatment upregulated UCP-3 and Nrf-1 expression in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. However, the abovementioned observed effects of exenatide were all abolished when exenatide was co-administered with exendin‑(9‑39), Rp-cAMPS and̸or H-89. Therefore, the GLP-1 analogue exenatide was found to exert cardioprotective effects in an in vitro model of H/R, and this cardioprotection may be attributed to the improvement of mitochondrial function. These effects are most likely associated with the activation of the GLP-1 receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.
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March 2018
Volume 41 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Chang, G., Liu, J., Qin, S., Jiang, Y., Zhang, P., Yu, H. ... Zhang, D. (2018). Cardioprotection by exenatide: A novel mechanism via improving mitochondrial function involving the GLP-1 receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 41, 1693-1703. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3318
MLA
Chang, G., Liu, J., Qin, S., Jiang, Y., Zhang, P., Yu, H., Lu, K., Zhang, N., Cao, L., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, D."Cardioprotection by exenatide: A novel mechanism via improving mitochondrial function involving the GLP-1 receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 41.3 (2018): 1693-1703.
Chicago
Chang, G., Liu, J., Qin, S., Jiang, Y., Zhang, P., Yu, H., Lu, K., Zhang, N., Cao, L., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, D."Cardioprotection by exenatide: A novel mechanism via improving mitochondrial function involving the GLP-1 receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 41, no. 3 (2018): 1693-1703. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3318