Open Access

Critical role of mass spectrometry proteomics in tear biomarker discovery for multifactorial ocular diseases (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Jessica Yuen Wuen Ma
    • Ying Hon Sze
    • Jing Fang Bian
    • Thomas Chuen Lam
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 18, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4916
  • Article Number: 83
  • Copyright: © Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

The tear film is a layer of body fluid that maintains the homeostasis of the ocular surface. The superior accessibility of tears and the presence of a high concentration of functional proteins make tears a potential medium for the discovery of non‑invasive biomarkers in ocular diseases. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled determination of an in‑depth proteome profile, improved sensitivity, faster acquisition speed, proven variety of acquisition methods, and identification of disease biomarkers previously lacking in the field of ophthalmology. The use of MS allows efficient discovery of tear proteins, generation of reproducible results, and, more importantly, determines changes of protein quantity and post‑translation modifications in microliter samples. The present review compared techniques for tear collection, sample preparation, and acquisition applied for the discovery of tear protein markers in normal subjects and multifactorial conditions, including dry eye syndrome, diabetic retinopathy, thyroid eye disease and primary open‑angle glaucoma, which require an early diagnosis for treatment. It also summarized the contribution of MS to early discovery by means of disease‑related protein markers in tear fluid and the potential for transformation of the tear MS‑based proteome to antibody‑based assay for future clinical application.
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May-2021
Volume 47 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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Spandidos Publications style
Ma JY, Sze YH, Bian JF and Lam TC: Critical role of mass spectrometry proteomics in tear biomarker discovery for multifactorial ocular diseases (Review). Int J Mol Med 47: 83, 2021
APA
Ma, J.Y., Sze, Y.H., Bian, J.F., & Lam, T.C. (2021). Critical role of mass spectrometry proteomics in tear biomarker discovery for multifactorial ocular diseases (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 47, 83. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4916
MLA
Ma, J. Y., Sze, Y. H., Bian, J. F., Lam, T. C."Critical role of mass spectrometry proteomics in tear biomarker discovery for multifactorial ocular diseases (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 47.5 (2021): 83.
Chicago
Ma, J. Y., Sze, Y. H., Bian, J. F., Lam, T. C."Critical role of mass spectrometry proteomics in tear biomarker discovery for multifactorial ocular diseases (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 47, no. 5 (2021): 83. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4916