Open Access

Effect of duty cycles of tumor‑treating fields on glioblastoma cells and normal brain organoids

  • Authors:
    • Eunbi Ye
    • Jung Eun Lee
    • Young-Soo Lim
    • Seung Ho Yang
    • Sung-Min Park
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: December 28, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5298
  • Article Number: 8
  • Copyright: © Ye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Tumor‑treating fields (TTFields) are emerging cancer therapies based on alternating low‑intensity electric fields that interfere with dividing cells and induce cancer cell apoptosis. However, to date, there is limited knowledge of their effects on normal cells, as well as the effects of different duty cycles on outcomes. The present study evaluated the effects of TTFields with different duty cycles on glioma spheroid cells and normal brain organoids. A customized TTFields system was developed to perform in vitro experiments with varying duty cycles. Three duty cycles were applied to three types of glioma spheroid cells and brain organoids. The efficacy and safety of the TTFields were evaluated by analyzing the cell cycle of glioma cells, and markers of neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocytes in brain organoids. The application of the TTFields at the 75 and 100% duty cycle markedly inhibited the proliferation of the U87 and U373 compared with the control. FACS analysis revealed that the higher the duty cycle of the applied fields, the greater the increase in apoptosis detected. Exposure to a higher duty cycle resulted in a greater decrease in NSC markers and a greater increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in normal brain organoids. These results suggest that TTFields at the 75 and 100% duty cycle induced cancer cell death, and that the neurotoxicity of the TTFields at 75% was less prominent than that at 100%. Although clinical studies with endpoints related to safety and efficacy need to be performed before this strategy may be adopted clinically, the findings of the present study provide meaningful evidence for the further advancement of TTFields in the treatment of various types of cancer.
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January-2022
Volume 60 Issue 1

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Copy and paste a formatted citation
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Spandidos Publications style
Ye E, Lee JE, Lim Y, Yang SH and Park S: Effect of duty cycles of tumor‑treating fields on glioblastoma cells and normal brain organoids. Int J Oncol 60: 8, 2022
APA
Ye, E., Lee, J.E., Lim, Y., Yang, S.H., & Park, S. (2022). Effect of duty cycles of tumor‑treating fields on glioblastoma cells and normal brain organoids. International Journal of Oncology, 60, 8. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5298
MLA
Ye, E., Lee, J. E., Lim, Y., Yang, S. H., Park, S."Effect of duty cycles of tumor‑treating fields on glioblastoma cells and normal brain organoids". International Journal of Oncology 60.1 (2022): 8.
Chicago
Ye, E., Lee, J. E., Lim, Y., Yang, S. H., Park, S."Effect of duty cycles of tumor‑treating fields on glioblastoma cells and normal brain organoids". International Journal of Oncology 60, no. 1 (2022): 8. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5298