Gene expression profile in human induced pluripotent stem cells: Chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, part A
- Wiktoria Maria Suchorska
- Ewelina Augustyniak
- Magdalena Richter
- Tomasz Trzeciak
Affiliations: Radiobiology Laboratory, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, 61‑866 Poznan, Poland, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61‑545 Poznan, Poland
- Published online on: March 16, 2017 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.6334
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Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer promise in regenerative medicine, however more data are required to improve understanding of key aspects of the cell differentiation process, including how specific chondrogenic processes affect the gene expression profile of chondrocyte‑like cells and the relative value of cell differentiation markers. The main aims of the present study were as follows: To determine the gene expression profile of chondrogenic-like cells derived from hiPSCs cultured in mediums conditioned with HC‑402‑05a cells or supplemented with transforming growth factor β3 (TGF‑β3), and to assess the relative utility of the most commonly used chondrogenic markers as indicators of cell differentiation. These issues are relevant with regard to the use of human fibroblasts in the reprogramming process to obtain hiPSCs. Human fibroblasts are derived from the mesoderm and thus share a wide range of properties with chondrocytes, which also originate from the mesenchyme. Thus, the exclusion of dedifferentiation instead of chondrogenic differentiation is crucial. The hiPSCs were obtained from human primary dermal fibroblasts during a reprogramming process. Two methods, both involving embryoid bodies (EB), were used to obtain chondrocytes from the hiPSCs: EBs formed in a chondrogenic medium supplemented with TGF‑β3 (10 ng/ml) and EBs formed in a medium conditioned with growth factors from HC‑402‑05a cells. Based on immunofluorescence and reverse transcription‑quantiative polymerase chain reaction analysis, the results indicated that hiPSCs have the capacity for effective chondrogenic differentiation, in particular cells differentiated in the HC‑402‑05a‑conditioned medium, which present morphological features and markers that are characteristic of mature human chondrocytes. By contrast, cells differentiated in the presence of TGF‑β3 may demonstrate hypertrophic characteristics. Several genes [paired box 9, sex determining region Y-box (SOX) 5, SOX6, SOX9 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein] were demonstrated to be good markers of early hiPSC chondrogenic differentiation: Insulin‑like growth factor 1, Tenascin‑C, and β‑catenin were less valuable. These observations provide valuable data on the use of hiPSCs in cartilage tissue regeneration.