Modulators of microglia activation and polarization in ischemic stroke (Review)
- Cheng‑Ting Jiang
- Wan‑Feng Wu
- Yi‑Hui Deng
- Jin‑Wen Ge
Affiliations: Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, College of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, P.R. China
- Published online on: February 26, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11003
Copyright: © Jiang
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. However, there is a current lack of effective therapies available. As the resident macrophages of the brain, microglia can monitor the microenvironment and initiate immune responses. In response to various brain injuries, such as ischemic stroke, microglia are activated and polarized into the proinflammatory M1 phenotype or the anti‑inflammatory M2 phenotype. The immunomodulatory molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, generated by these microglia are closely associated with secondary brain damage or repair, respectively, following ischemic stroke. It has been shown that M1 microglia promote secondary brain damage, whilst M2 microglia facilitate recovery following stroke. In addition, autophagy is also reportedly involved in the pathology of ischemic stroke through regulating the activation and function of microglia. Therefore, this review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of microglia activation, their functions and changes, and the modulators of these processes, including transcription factors, membrane receptors, ion channel proteins and genes, in ischemic stroke. The effects of autophagy on microglia polarization in ischemic stroke were also reviewed. Finally, future research areas of ischemic stroke and the implications of the current knowledge for the development of novel therapeutics for ischemic stroke were identified.