Sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Hiroki Nishikawa
    • Shinya Fukunishi
    • Akira Asai
    • Keisuke Yokohama
    • Hideko Ohama
    • Shuhei Nishiguchi
    • Kazuhide Higuchi
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 14, 2021     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12494
  • Article Number: 854
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Abstract

Skeletal muscle is the largest and most energy‑consuming organ in the human body, which plays an important role in energy metabolism and glucose uptake. There is a notable decrease in glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Endurance exercise can reduce hyperglycemia and improve insulin resistance in patients with type 2 DM. Insulin exerts a variety of effects, many of which are mediated by Akt, including increasing glucose uptake, promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting glycogen degradation, increasing free fatty acid uptake, increasing protein synthesis, promoting muscle hypertrophy and inhibiting protein degradation. Skeletal muscle mass progressively declines with aging, resulting in loss of muscle strength and physical function. Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle weakness or loss of physical function, and frailty is another syndrome that has received great interest in recent years. Decreased organ function results in vulnerability to external stress. Frailty is associated with falls, fractures and hospitalization; however, there is the reversibility of returning to a healthy state with appropriate interventions. Frailty is classified into three subgroups: Physical frailty, social frailty and cognitive frailty, whereby sarcopenia is the main component of physical frailty. The present review discusses the associations between sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 DM based on current evidence.

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December-2021
Volume 24 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

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Spandidos Publications style
Nishikawa H, Fukunishi S, Asai A, Yokohama K, Ohama H, Nishiguchi S and Higuchi K: Sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review). Mol Med Rep 24: 854, 2021
APA
Nishikawa, H., Fukunishi, S., Asai, A., Yokohama, K., Ohama, H., Nishiguchi, S., & Higuchi, K. (2021). Sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports, 24, 854. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12494
MLA
Nishikawa, H., Fukunishi, S., Asai, A., Yokohama, K., Ohama, H., Nishiguchi, S., Higuchi, K."Sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 24.6 (2021): 854.
Chicago
Nishikawa, H., Fukunishi, S., Asai, A., Yokohama, K., Ohama, H., Nishiguchi, S., Higuchi, K."Sarcopenia, frailty and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)". Molecular Medicine Reports 24, no. 6 (2021): 854. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12494