Structure identification, antitumor activity and mechanisms of a novel polysaccharide from Ramaria flaccida (Fr.) Quél
- Mingming Dong
- Yiling Hou
- Xiang Ding
Affiliations: Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation, College of Life Sciences, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, P.R. China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, P.R. China
- Published online on: June 19, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11761
Copyright: © Dong
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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It is an important aspect of current cancer research to search for effective and low‑toxicity anticancer drugs and adjuvants. Polysaccharides, as immunomodulators, can improve the immune function of the body, kill tumor cells directly and prevent tumor development by increasing the resistance of the body to carcinogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to identify natural polysaccharide compounds with novel structure and antitumor activity via the separation and analysis of polysaccharide components from Ramaria flaccida (Fr.) Quél. (RF‑1). In the present study, high‑performance gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to identify the structure of polysaccharides from RF‑1. Subsequently, the antitumor activity and mechanism of RF‑1 were studied by establishing an in vivo S180 tumor model, and by using Illumina sequencing technology and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The present results revealed that the average molecular weight of RF‑1 was 17,093 Da and that RF‑1 was composed of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose, with a 2:1 ratio. The main chain of RF‑1 consisted of (1→6, 2)‑α‑D‑galactopyranose and (1→6, 4)‑α‑D‑glucopyranose. One of the branched chains was linked to 4‑O of the main glucose chain by (1→6)‑α‑D‑glucopyranose and next linked by one (→4)‑β‑D‑glucopyranose. The other two branched chains were both linked to 2‑O of the main glucose chain by one (→4)‑β‑D‑glucopyranose. In addition, RF‑1 inhibited the growth of S180 tumors in vivo. When the concentration of RF‑1 was 20 mg/kg, the inhibition rate of S180 tumors in mice was 48.4%. Compared with the blank control group, 1,971 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 818 were upregulated and 1,153 were downregulated in the RF‑1 group. A Gene Ontology enrichment analysis generated 47,091 assignments to biological processes, 5,250 assignments to cellular components, and 6,466 assignments to molecular functions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways were significantly enriched. The number of differentially annotated genes in these two pathways was 19 and 33, respectively. Additionally, ELISA results revealed that the protein levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor in the RF‑1 group were significantly downregulated compared with the S180 blank control group (P<0.01).