Role of neutrophil gelatinase‑associated lipocalin in renal cell carcinoma (Review)
- Kai Che
- Wenkai Han
- Mingxin Zhang
- Haitao Niu
Affiliations: Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, P.R. China
- Published online on: December 24, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12409
Copyright: © Che
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Commons Attribution License.
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Human neutrophil gelatinase‑associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein present in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. It exists as a monomer of 25 kDa, a homodimer of 45 kDa or a heterodimer of 135 kDa (disulfide bound to latent matrix metalloproteinase‑9). NGAL is considered the biochemical gold standard for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury and has attracted much attention as a diagnostic biomarker. NGAL has controversial (i.e. both beneficial and detrimental) effects on cellular processes associated with tumor development, such as cell proliferation, survival, migration, invasion and drug resistance. Therefore, the present review aimed at clarifying the role of NGAL in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Relevant studies of NGAL and RCC were searched in PubMed and relevant information about the structure, expression, function and mechanism of NGAL in RCC were summarized. Finally, the following conclusions could be drawn from the literature: i) NGAL can be detected in cancer tissues, serum and urine of patients with RCC; ii) NGAL is not a suitable diagnostic marker for early screening of RCC; iii) NGAL expression may be used to predict the prognosis of patients with RCC; and iv) Further research on NGAL may be helpful to decrease sunitinib resistance and find new treatment strategies for RCC.