Arsenic trioxide‑induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are potentiated by 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human leukemia K562 cells
- Ya-Li Zhang
- Shu-Kai Qiao
- Xiao-Nan Guo
- Jin-Hai Ren
- Jing-Nan Zhang
Affiliations: Department of General Practice, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, P.R. China, Department of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, P.R. China
- Published online on: May 3, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12770
Copyright: © Zhang
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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The interaction between 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin [1,25(OH)2D3] and vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a critical role in regulating cell proliferation and programmed cell death. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the proliferation and cell cycle of a K562 leukemia cell line. K562 cells were treated with 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, 2.5 µM As2O3, and 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 combined with 2.5 µM As2O3. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑5‑(3‑carboxymethoxyphenyl)‑2‑(4‑sulfophenyl)‑2H‑tetrazolium, inner salt/phenazine ethosulfate method. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The expression levels of genes associated with the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting analyses. The present findings indicated that combined treatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 and As2O3 led to a significant increase in cytotoxicity, apoptotic cell death and G1 cell cycle arrest when compared to those treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 or As2O3 alone. The downregulation of the Bax/Bcl‑2 ratio and decreased survivin expression may be involved in combined treatment‑mediated apoptosis. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest induced by combined treatment was associated with the activation of p21 and p27. In addition, the increased expression of VDR was found to participate in the anticancer effect of combination treatment. The data suggested that the combination of 1, 25‑(OH)2D3 and As2O3 had clear synergistic effects on the inhibition of K562 cell proliferation, which could provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.